We evaluated the associations among different types of plant-based diet indices, risk of dyslipidemia, and individual lipid disorders in Asian populations with different dietary patterns from Western populations. Participants included 4507 Korean adults aged ≥40 years without dyslipidemia and related chronic diseases at baseline (2001–2002). Dietary intakes were assessed using an average of validated food frequency questionnaires measured twice. We calculated three plant-based diet indices: overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI), and unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI). During a follow-up of 14 years, 2995 incident dyslipidemia cases occurred. Comparing the highest with lowest quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident dyslipidemia were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69–0.88) for PDI, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.56–0.70) for hPDI, and 1.48 (95% CI, 1.30–1.69) for uPDI (P
-trend < 0.0001 for all). Associations between PDI and individual lipid disorders differed by sex. The PDI was inversely associated with risk of developing hypertriglyceridemia in men and with risk of developing low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. The hPDI was inversely associated with risk of all lipid disorders, whereas the uPDI was positively associated with individual lipid disorders. The quality of plant foods is important for prevention of dyslipidemia in a population that consumes diets high in plant foods.
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