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Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Abdominal Fat Phenotypes and Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Individuals after Acute Pancreatitis

School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
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Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2883; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092883
Received: 21 July 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 17 September 2020 / Published: 21 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes)
Both type 2 prediabetes/diabetes (T2DM) and new-onset prediabetes/diabetes after acute pancreatitis (NODAP) are characterized by impaired tissue sensitivity to insulin action. Although the outcomes of NODAP and T2DM are different, it is unknown whether drivers of insulin resistance are different in the two types of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the associations between abdominal fat phenotypes and indices of insulin sensitivity in non-obese individuals with NODAP, T2DM, and healthy controls. Indices of insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS), Raynaud index, triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index, Matsuda index) were calculated in fasting and postprandial states. Fat phenotypes (intra-pancreatic fat, intra-hepatic fat, skeletal muscle fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat) were determined using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Linear regression and relative importance analyses were conducted. Age, sex, and glycated hemoglobin A1c were adjusted for. A total of 78 non-obese individuals (26 NODAP, 20 T2DM, and 32 healthy controls) were included. Intra-pancreatic fat was significantly associated with all the indices of insulin sensitivity in the NODAP group, consistently in both the unadjusted and adjusted models. Intra-pancreatic fat was not significantly associated with any index of insulin sensitivity in the T2DM and healthy controls groups. The variance in HOMA-IS was explained the most by intra-pancreatic fat (R2 = 29%) in the NODAP group and by visceral fat (R2 = 21%) in the T2DM group. The variance in the Raynaud index was explained the most by intra-pancreatic fat (R2 = 18%) in the NODAP group and by visceral fat (R2 = 15%) in the T2DM group. The variance in the TyG index was explained the most by visceral fat in both the NODAP group (R2 = 49%) and in the T2DM group (R2 = 25%). The variance in the Matsuda index was explained the most by intra-pancreatic fat (R2 = 48%) in the NODAP group and by visceral fat (R2 = 38%) in the T2DM group. The differing association between intra-pancreatic fat and insulin resistance can be used to differentiate NODAP from T2DM. Insulin resistance in NODAP appears to be predominantly driven by increased intra-pancreatic fat deposition. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; pancreatitis; insulin resistance; intra-pancreatic fat; visceral fat; fat phenotypes; lipid metabolism diabetes; pancreatitis; insulin resistance; intra-pancreatic fat; visceral fat; fat phenotypes; lipid metabolism
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Ko, J.; Skudder-Hill, L.; Cho, J.; Bharmal, S.H.; Petrov, M.S. The Relationship between Abdominal Fat Phenotypes and Insulin Resistance in Non-Obese Individuals after Acute Pancreatitis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2883.

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