Next Article in Journal
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Obesity (Diabesity). The Central Role of Gut Microbiota and Its Translational Applications
Next Article in Special Issue
New Insights into the Pathogenesis of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides and Oxidative Stress
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of Sodium Knowledge and Urinary Sodium Excretion among Regions of the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Poor Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Serum Lipopolysaccharide Are Associated with Oxidative Stress in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Open AccessArticle

Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Severe Obesity and Associated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Role of Sex Differences

1
Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06129 Perugia, Italy
2
Internal Medicine, “Santa Maria” University Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera di Terni, 05100 Terni, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2748; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092748
Received: 4 August 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 9 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet in Fatty Liver Disease)
Very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) are an emerging nutritional treatment for severe obesity and are associated with a significant improvement in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Little is known about the effect of sex differences on weight loss induced by following a VLCKD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex differences on weight loss and NAFLD improvement in patients with severe obesity undergoing a VLCKD. Forty-two females and 28 males with severe obesity underwent a 25-day VLCKD. Anthropometric parameters, bioimpedentiometry, degree of liver steatosis measured by ultrasonography, liver function tests, and glucose homeostasis were measured before and after the VLCKD. Males experienced a significantly larger excess body weight loss (EBWL) and a greater reduction in γ-glutamyl transferase (γGT) than females. Dividing the female group by menopausal status, a significant difference between males and pre-menopausal females was found for both EBWL and γGT. No significant difference between groups was observed for improvement in the Edmonton stage or in the degree of steatosis. We conclude that the efficacy of following a VLCKD in severe obesity is affected by sex differences and, for females, by menopausal status. Males seem to experience larger benefits than females in terms of EBWL and NAFLD improvement. These differences are attenuated after menopause, probably because of changes in hormonal profile and body composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; severe obesity; sex differences; body composition very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; severe obesity; sex differences; body composition
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

D’Abbondanza, M.; Ministrini, S.; Pucci, G.; Nulli Migliola, E.; Martorelli, E.-E.; Gandolfo, V.; Siepi, D.; Lupattelli, G.; Vaudo, G. Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Severe Obesity and Associated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Role of Sex Differences. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2748. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092748

AMA Style

D’Abbondanza M, Ministrini S, Pucci G, Nulli Migliola E, Martorelli E-E, Gandolfo V, Siepi D, Lupattelli G, Vaudo G. Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Severe Obesity and Associated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Role of Sex Differences. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2748. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092748

Chicago/Turabian Style

D’Abbondanza, Marco; Ministrini, Stefano; Pucci, Giacomo; Nulli Migliola, Elisa; Martorelli, Eva-Edvige; Gandolfo, Vito; Siepi, Donatella; Lupattelli, Graziana; Vaudo, Gaetano. 2020. "Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Severe Obesity and Associated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Role of Sex Differences" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2748. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092748

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop