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Open AccessArticle

The Impact of the Use of Glycomacropeptide on Satiety and Dietary Intake in Phenylketonuria

Dietetic Department, Birmingham Children’s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham B4 6NH, UK
Liverpool Clinical Trials Centre, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GL, UK
Nutrition and Metabolism, NOVA Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1169–056 Lisboa, Portugal
Centre for Health and Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), 4200–450 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2704;
Received: 29 July 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Therapy and Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria)
Protein is the most satiating macronutrient, increasing secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and diet induced thermogenesis. In phenylketonuria (PKU), natural protein is restricted with approximately 80% of intake supplied by a synthetic protein source, which may alter satiety response. Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP-AA), a carbohydrate containing peptide and alternative protein substitute to amino acids (AA), may enhance satiety mediated by its bioactive properties. Aim: In a three-year longitudinal; prospective study, the effect of AA and two different amounts of CGMP-AA (CGMP-AA only (CGMP100) and a combination of CGMP-AA and AA (CGMP50) on satiety, weight and body mass index (BMI) were compared. Methods: 48 children with PKU completed the study. Median ages of children were: CGMP100; (n = 13), 9.2 years; CGMP50; (n = 16), 7.3 years; and AA (n = 19), 11.1 years. Semi-quantitative dietary assessments and anthropometry (weight, height and BMI) were measured every three months. Results: The macronutrient contribution to total energy intake from protein, carbohydrate and fat was similar across the groups. Adjusting for age and gender, no differences in energy intake, weight, BMI, incidence of overweight or obesity was apparent between the groups. Conclusion: In this three-year longitudinal study, there was no indication to support a relationship between CGMP and satiety, as evidenced by decreased energy intake, thereby preventing overweight or obesity. Satiety is a complex multi-system process that is not fully understood. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenylketonuria; PKU; glycomacropeptide; satiety phenylketonuria; PKU; glycomacropeptide; satiety
MDPI and ACS Style

Daly, A.; Evans, S.; Pinto, A.; Jackson, R.; Ashmore, C.; Rocha, J.C.; MacDonald, A. The Impact of the Use of Glycomacropeptide on Satiety and Dietary Intake in Phenylketonuria. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2704.

AMA Style

Daly A, Evans S, Pinto A, Jackson R, Ashmore C, Rocha JC, MacDonald A. The Impact of the Use of Glycomacropeptide on Satiety and Dietary Intake in Phenylketonuria. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2704.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daly, Anne; Evans, Sharon; Pinto, Alex; Jackson, Richard; Ashmore, Catherine; Rocha, Júlio C.; MacDonald, Anita. 2020. "The Impact of the Use of Glycomacropeptide on Satiety and Dietary Intake in Phenylketonuria" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2704.

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