Early Nutritional Interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for Raising Anti-Viral Resistance Against Progressive COVID-19
Division of Infection Control and Environment Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 222 Skøyen, 0213 Oslo, Norway
Laboratory of Biotechnology and Bioelementology, Yaroslavl State University, Sovetskaya Str. 14, Yaroslavl 150000, Russia
IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Bolshaya Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119146, Russia
Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7804, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, P.O. Box 104, 2381 Brumunddal, Norway
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-58185 Linköping, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082358
Received: 16 July 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 5 August 2020 / Published: 7 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Objectives: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) conveys a serious threat globally to health and economy because of a lack of vaccines and specific treatments. A common factor for conditions that predispose for serious progress is a low-grade inflammation, e.g., as seen in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and heart failure, to which micronutrient deficiencies may contribute. The aim of the present article was to explore the usefulness of early micronutrient intervention, with focus on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, to relieve escalation of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted an online search for articles published in the period 2010–2020 on zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and corona and related virus infections. Results: There were a few studies providing direct evidence on associations between zinc, selenium, and vitamin D, and COVID-19. Adequate supply of zinc, selenium, and vitamin D is essential for resistance to other viral infections, immune function, and reduced inflammation. Hence, it is suggested that nutrition intervention securing an adequate status might protect against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - coronavirus-2) and mitigate the course of COVID-19. Conclusion: We recommended initiation of adequate supplementation in high-risk areas and/or soon after the time of suspected infection with SARS-CoV-2. Subjects in high-risk groups should have high priority as regards this nutritive adjuvant therapy, which should be started prior to administration of specific and supportive medical measures.