2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.2.1. Change in Health Behaviors
2.2.3. Financial Stress
2.2.4. Food Insecurity
2.2.5. Current Level of Health Behaviors among Parents and Children
2.2.6. Qualitative Questions on COVID-19
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Family Characteristics and Current Health Behaviors
3.2. Change in Health Behaviors Since COVID-19
3.3. Family Stress, Financial and Food Security
3.4. Qualitative Questions on COVID-19
3.4.1. Physical Activity and Screen Time Changes
3.4.2. Children’s Mood and General Behavior
3.4.3. Factors that Increase Family Stress
3.4.4. Strategies to Cope with Changes
3.4.5. Helpful Resources
Conflicts of Interest
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|(n = 254)||(n = 310)||(n = 235)||(n = 126)|
|Age, Years, Mean (SD)||-||5.7 (2.0)||37.5 (4.8)||39.4 (5.5)|
|Ethnicity, n (%) 1|
|Caucasian||-||-||204 (86.8)||111 (88.1)|
|African American||-||-||2 (0.9)||0 (0.0)|
|Latin American||-||-||7 (3.0)||3 (2.4)|
|Asian||-||-||11 (4.7)||5 (4.0)|
|South/West Asian||-||-||7 (3.0)||4 (3.2)|
|Other||-||-||3 (1.3)||1 (0.8)|
|Household Income, n (%) 2|
|Less than $30,000||13 (5.1)||-||-||-|
|$100,000 or more||144 (56.7)||-||-||-|
|Marital Status, n (%) 3|
|Single||-||-||7 (3.0)||0 (0.0)|
|Cohabiting||23 (9.8)||14 (11.1)|
|Married||-||-||195 (83.0)||104 (82.5)|
|Separated||-||-||8 (3.4)||1 (0.8)|
|Physical Activity, Mean (SD) 4|
|MVPA, hours/week||-||-||4.5 (4.2)||9.5 (13.4)|
|Time spent walking, hours/week||-||-||4.5 (5.1)||6.1 (8.5)|
|Time spent sitting, hours/day||-||-||6.1 (2.9)||6.5 (3.1)|
|Time spent outdoors, hours/day||-||1.1 (0.5)||-||-|
|Time in active play, hours/day||-||0.9 (0.5)||-||-|
|Sleep Duration, Mean (SD)|
|Hours||-||10.9 (0.7)||8.2 (1.1)||7.9 (0.9)|
|Screen Time, Mean (SD)|
|Hours/day||-||2.4 (1.6)||2.7 (1.6)||2.8 (1.7)|
|Eating Patterns, Mean (SD)|
|Fruit and Vegetable, times/day||-||4.5 (2.2)||4.1 (2.1)||3.8 (2.2)|
|Snack Foods, times/day||-||0.8 (0.8)||1.0 (0.9)||0.9 (0.9)|
|Fast Food/Take-Out, times/week||-||-||0.8 (0.8)||0.8 (0.7)|
(n = 310)
(n = 235)
(n = 126)
|Stress Level 1-10, Mean (SD)||-||6.8 (1.9)||6.0 (2.5)|
|Child Concern COVID-19, n (%) 1|
|Very little||153 (49.4)||-||-|
|Very Much||22 (7.1)||-||-|
|Financial Stress, n Yes (%)|
|During the past month||-||45 (19.1)||17 (13.5)|
|Over the next 6 months||-||51 (21.7)||22 (17.5)|
|Food Insecurity, n Yes (%)|
|During the past month||-||20 (8.5)||6 (4.8)|
|Over the next 6 months||-||20 (8.5)||6 (4.8)|
|Increasing physical activity||“More exercise activities for inside…that last for around 1/2 hr.”|
“Resources around fun physical activity they can do indoors, or challenges they can participate in”
|Reducing screen time||“|
Ideas to get the kids off screens”“Any tips for keeping a 4-year-old independently busy (and not on a screen) while mommy gets work done would be great too!!”
|Homeschooling||“Having a better way to ease [daughter] into her homework would have helped at first to minimize the appearance of a school-related pressure one encounters as a parent at first.”|
|Time management||“I’m trying to figure out the balancing helping with school work and working myself fulltime.”|
“More ready-to-go day plans for pre-school aged children.”
|Parenting||“We could use some support around managing tantrums and fighting between siblings.”|
|Grocery shopping||“How to plan ahead and minimize the trips to the grocery store?”|
“Ideally I’d like to only go every 2 weeks, but don’t know how to stretch out fresh produce to last that long.”
|Cooking and diet||“Meal planning tools and trackers for the # of servings of healthy foods we eat each day vs. the # of unhealthy snacks or “treats””|
“Activity ideas to help get (child’s name) interested in helping in the kitchen”
|Understanding COVID-19||“How to talk to kids about not being able to do things they look forward to ie. seeing grandparents, having a birthday party, playing with friends.”|
“Kids directed video about Corona virus, I didn’t realize he was so worried until I asked him while doing the questionnaire. I talk with him about it often, in a non-scary way.”
|Improving mental health||“Mindfulness activities or other stress-reduction methods, appropriate for all ages.”|
“Ideas for emotional regulation”
“We need supports on how to support the kid’s anxiety during this time.”
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