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Review

The Facts about Food after Cancer Diagnosis: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies

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UOC di Nutrizione Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia Traslazionale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
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UOSD di Nutrizione Avanzata in Oncologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Scuola di Specializzazione in Scienza dell’Alimentazione, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
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UOC di Medicina Interna e Gastroenterologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Freelance Registered Dietitian
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Comprehensive Cancer Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Dipartimento di Medicina Traslazionale e di Precisione, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082345
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 31 July 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
Nutritional guidelines suggest specific energy and protein requirements for patients with cancer. However, cancer patients, often malnourished, use self-made or web-based diets to ameliorate the prognosis of their disease. This review aimed to investigate the associations between post-diagnostic diet and prognostic outcomes in cancer patients. A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed and Web of Science databases from inception to 30 October 2019, based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. The risk of bias was assessed. A total of 29 prospective studies was identified. Breast (n = 11), colorectal (n = 9), prostate (n = 8) cancers are the most studied. Low- fat diet, healthy quality diet, regular consumption of fiber such as vegetables and high-quality protein intake are beneficial while Western diet (WD) and high consumption of saturated fats could be associated with a higher risk of mortality. Bladder (n = 1), gynecological (n = 1), lung, stomach, and pancreatic cancers still remain almost unexplored. This systematic review suggested that detrimental dietary patterns such as WD should be avoided but none of the food categories (meat, dairy products) should be eliminated in cancer patients’ diet. Further large prospective studies are needed to assess the role of post-diagnostic diet in patients with cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; diet; malnutrition; meat; milk; dairy products; nuts; vegetarian diet; ketogenic diet; mediterranean diet; gut microbiota; short chain fatty acids; personalized medicine cancer; diet; malnutrition; meat; milk; dairy products; nuts; vegetarian diet; ketogenic diet; mediterranean diet; gut microbiota; short chain fatty acids; personalized medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rinninella, E.; Mele, M.C.; Cintoni, M.; Raoul, P.; Ianiro, G.; Salerno, L.; Pozzo, C.; Bria, E.; Muscaritoli, M.; Molfino, A.; Gasbarrini, A. The Facts about Food after Cancer Diagnosis: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2345. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082345

AMA Style

Rinninella E, Mele MC, Cintoni M, Raoul P, Ianiro G, Salerno L, Pozzo C, Bria E, Muscaritoli M, Molfino A, Gasbarrini A. The Facts about Food after Cancer Diagnosis: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2345. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082345

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rinninella, Emanuele, Maria C. Mele, Marco Cintoni, Pauline Raoul, Gianluca Ianiro, Lucia Salerno, Carmelo Pozzo, Emilio Bria, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Alessio Molfino, and Antonio Gasbarrini. 2020. "The Facts about Food after Cancer Diagnosis: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2345. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082345

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