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Cardiovascular Healthcare Cost Savings Associated with Increased Whole Grains Consumption among Adults in the United States

by 1,*,† and 2,†
1
Exponent, Inc., Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Washington, DC 20036, USA
2
Pharmerit—An Open Health Company, Real-World Evidence and Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2323; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082323
Received: 22 June 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 3 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grains for Nutrition and Health Benefits)
Little is known about the potential health economic impact of increasing the proportion of total grains consumed as whole grains to align with Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations. Health economic analysis estimating difference in costs developed using (1) relative risk (RR) estimates between whole grains consumption and outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a selected component (coronary heart disease, CHD); (2) estimates of total and whole grains consumption among US adults; and (3) annual direct and indirect medical costs associated with CVD. Using reported RR estimates and assuming a linear relationship, risk reductions per serving of whole grains were calculated and cost savings were estimated from proportional reductions by health outcome. With a 4% reduction in CVD incidence per serving and a daily increase of 2.24 oz-eq of whole grains, one-year direct medical cost savings were estimated at US$21.9 billion (B) (range, US$5.5B to US$38.4B). With this same increase in whole grains and a 5% reduction in CHD incidence per serving, one-year direct medical cost savings were estimated at US$14.0B (US$8.4B to US$22.4B). A modest increase in whole grains of 0.25 oz-eq per day was associated with one-year CVD-related savings of $2.4B (US$0.6B to US$4.3B) and CHD-related savings of US$1.6B (US$0.9B to US$2.5B). Increasing whole grains consumption among US adults to align more closely with DGA recommendations has the potential for substantial healthcare cost savings. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; costs and cost analysis; nutrition economics; public health; whole grains cardiovascular disease; costs and cost analysis; nutrition economics; public health; whole grains
MDPI and ACS Style

Murphy, M.M.; Schmier, J.K. Cardiovascular Healthcare Cost Savings Associated with Increased Whole Grains Consumption among Adults in the United States. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2323.

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