Comparison of Two Dietary Supplements for Treatment of Uric Acid Renal Lithiasis: Citrate vs. Citrate + Theobromine
Urology Service of Manacor Hospital, 07500 Balearic Islands, Spain
Laboratory of Renal Lithiasis Research, University Institute of Health Sciences Research (IUNICS-IdISBa), University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072012
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 4 July 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Urinary Stone Disease)
Background. Uric acid (UA) renal lithiasis has a high rate of recurrence and a prevalence ranging from 10% and 15%, depending on the population. The most important etiological factor is persistence of urinary pH below 5.5 and one of the most common treatments is alkalization with citrate. Recent studies demonstrated that theobromine, which is abundant in chocolate and cocoa, is a potent inhibitor of UA crystallization. Aim. The aim was to compare the efficacy of citrate versus citrate + theobromine as treatment for UA lithiasis. Methods. This randomized cross-over trial investigated the efficacy of two treatments in 47 patients with UA renal lithiasis. Urine volume, pH, UA excretion, theobromine excretion, and risk of UA crystallization (RUAC) at baseline and at the end of each intervention period were measured. Results. Each treatment significantly reduced the risk of UA crystallization compared to basal values. The RUAC after citrate + theobromine was lower than the RUAC after citrate, although this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. The combined consumption of citrate and theobromine may be a promising strategy for the prevention of UA kidney stones.