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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Mitochondrial Dysfunction as a Novel Target for Neuroprotective Nutraceuticals in Ocular Diseases

by Chun-Ping Huang 1,†, Yi-Wen Lin 2,†, Yu-Chuen Huang 1,3,* and Fuu-Jen Tsai 1,3,4,5,*
1
School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
3
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
4
Children’s Hospital of China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
5
Department of Medical Genetics, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071950
Received: 4 June 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Eye Health)
The eyes require a rich oxygen and nutrient supply; hence, the high-energy demand of the visual system makes it sensitive to oxidative stress. Excessive free radicals result in mitochondrial dysfunction and lead to retinal neurodegeneration, as an early stage of retinal metabolic disorders. Retinal cells are vulnerable because of their coordinated interaction and intricate neural networks. Nutraceuticals are believed to target multiple pathways and have shown neuroprotective benefits by scavenging free radicals and promoting mitochondrial gene expression. Furthermore, encouraging results demonstrate that nutraceuticals improve the organization of retinal cells and visual functions. This review discusses the mitochondrial impairments of retinal cells and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of nutraceuticals. However, some unsolved problems still exist between laboratory study and clinical therapy. Poor bioavailability and bioaccessibility strongly limit their development. A new delivery system and improved formulation may offer promise for health care applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutraceuticals; neuroprotection; ocular diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction nutraceuticals; neuroprotection; ocular diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, C.-P.; Lin, Y.-W.; Huang, Y.-C.; Tsai, F.-J. Mitochondrial Dysfunction as a Novel Target for Neuroprotective Nutraceuticals in Ocular Diseases. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1950.

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