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Characteristic Analysis of Trigonelline Contained in Raphanus sativus Cv. Sakurajima Daikon and Results from the First Trial Examining Its Vasodilator Properties in Humans

1
Graduate School of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
2
Department of Food Science & Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
3
Department of Cardiology, Tenyoukai Central Hospital, Kagoshima 892-0822, Japan
4
Department of Human Life and Science, Kagoshima Women’s College, Kagoshima 890-8565, Japan
5
ROHTO Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka 544-8666, Japan
6
Laboratory of Biochemistry & Nutritional Chemistry, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061872
Received: 31 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary (Poly)Phenols and Health)
Vascular disease poses a major public health problem worldwide. Trigonelline isolated from Raphanus sativus cv. Sakurajima Daikon (Sakurajima radish) induces nitric oxide production from vascular endothelial cells and enhances vascular function. Here, we investigated the characteristics of trigonelline and its effects on endothelial function after consumption of Sakurajima radish by humans. Our results show that Sakurajima radish contains approximately 60 times more trigonelline than other radishes and squashes. Additionally, no significant differences were observed between varieties of Sakurajima radish, suggesting that any type of Sakurajima radish can be ingested for trigonelline supplementation. The effects of cooking and processing Sakurajima radish were also evaluated, as were the effects of freezing, and changes in osmotic pressure and pH. A first-in-human trial using Sakurajima radish showed that ingestion of 170 g/day of Sakurajima radish for ten days increased blood trigonelline concentrations and significantly improved flow-mediated dilation, which is a measure of vascular endothelial function. Overall, our findings suggest that the trigonelline contained in Sakurajima radish may contribute to improved human vascular endothelial function. Hence, Sakurajima radish may enhance vascular endothelial function as a functional food. View Full-Text
Keywords: clinical trial; humans; radish; trigonelline; vascular function clinical trial; humans; radish; trigonelline; vascular function
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sasaki, M.; Nonoshita, Y.; Kajiya, T.; Atsuchi, N.; Kido, M.; Chu, D.-C.; Juneja, L.R.; Minami, Y.; Kajiya, K. Characteristic Analysis of Trigonelline Contained in Raphanus sativus Cv. Sakurajima Daikon and Results from the First Trial Examining Its Vasodilator Properties in Humans. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1872.

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