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Article

Caffeine and Caffeine Metabolites in Relation to Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in U.S. Adults

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea
2
Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061783
Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
The relationship between caffeine and insulin resistance (IR) has been assessed only in terms of caffeine intake, and the association between caffeine and beta cell function (BCF) remains unclear. This study examines the association between urinary caffeine and its metabolites, IR, and BCF in nondiabetic, noninstitutionalized US adults in order to account for the inter-individual differences in caffeine metabolism. Data on urinary caffeine and its metabolites, IR and BCF from adults aged 20 years and older who participated in the 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed (n for caffeine = 994). IR and BCF were assessed using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) and urinary caffeine and its metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. After adjusting for all covariates, increases in urinary 1,3-DMU, 1,7-DMU, 1,3,7-TMU, theophylline, paraxanthine, caffeine, and AAMU were significantly associated with increased HOMA-IR and HOMA-β (HOMA of insulin resistance and beta cell function). Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of urinary 1,3-DMU, 1,7-DMU, 1,3,7-TMU, theophylline, paraxanthine, caffeine, and AAMU, the regression coefficients for HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were significantly higher among those in the highest quartile. After stratification by prediabetes status, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β showed significant positive associations with urinary caffeine and its metabolites among subjects with normal fasting plasma glucose levels. Our cross-sectional study showed that caffeine and its metabolites were positively related to IR and BCF. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; xanthines; insulin resistance; beta cell function; cross-sectional study caffeine; xanthines; insulin resistance; beta cell function; cross-sectional study
MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.; Min, J.-y.; Min, K.-b. Caffeine and Caffeine Metabolites in Relation to Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in U.S. Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1783. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061783

AMA Style

Lee S, Min J-y, Min K-b. Caffeine and Caffeine Metabolites in Relation to Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in U.S. Adults. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1783. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061783

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Sohyae, Jin-young Min, and Kyoung-bok Min. 2020. "Caffeine and Caffeine Metabolites in Relation to Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in U.S. Adults" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1783. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061783

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