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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition and Corticosteroid Induction Therapy on the Gut Microbiota of Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, McMaster Children’s Hospital, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
2
Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
3
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061691
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
Introduction: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) and corticosteroids (CS) are effective induction therapies for pediatric Crohn’s Disease (CD). CS are also therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC). Host–microbe interactions may be able to explain the effectiveness of these treatments. This is the first prospective study to longitudinally characterize compositional changes in the bacterial community structure of pediatric UC and CD patients receiving EEN or CS induction therapy. Methods: Patients with diagnoses of CD or UC were recruited from McMaster Children’s Hospital (Hamilton, Canada). Fecal samples were collected from participants aged 5–18 years old undergoing 8 weeks of induction therapy with EEN or CS. Fecal samples were submitted for 16S rRNA sequencing. The Shannon diversity index and the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa were compared using a linear mixed model. Results: The clustering of microbiota was the highest between patients who achieved remission compared to patients still showing active disease (p = 0.029); this effect was independent of the diagnosis or treatment type. All patients showed a significant increase in Shannon diversity over the 8 weeks of treatment. By week 2, a significant difference was seen in Shannon diversity between patients who would go on to achieve remission and those who would not. Conclusion: The gut microbiota of pediatric UC and CD patients was most influenced by patients’ success or failure to achieve remission and was largely independent of the choice of treatment or disease type. Significant differences in Shannon diversity indices occurred as early as week 2 between patients who went on to achieve remission and those who continued to have active disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; exclusive enteral nutrition; pediatric inflammatory bowel disease; induction of remission microbiome; exclusive enteral nutrition; pediatric inflammatory bowel disease; induction of remission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hart, L.; Farbod, Y.; Szamosi, J.C.; Yamamoto, M.; Britz-McKibbin, P.; Halgren, C.; Zachos, M.; Pai, N. Effect of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition and Corticosteroid Induction Therapy on the Gut Microbiota of Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1691. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061691

AMA Style

Hart L, Farbod Y, Szamosi JC, Yamamoto M, Britz-McKibbin P, Halgren C, Zachos M, Pai N. Effect of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition and Corticosteroid Induction Therapy on the Gut Microbiota of Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1691. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061691

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hart, Lara; Farbod, Yasamin; Szamosi, Jake C.; Yamamoto, Mai; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; Halgren, Camilla; Zachos, Mary; Pai, Nikhil. 2020. "Effect of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition and Corticosteroid Induction Therapy on the Gut Microbiota of Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1691. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061691

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