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Open AccessArticle

Effects of a Ketogenic Diet Containing Medium-Chain Triglycerides and Endurance Training on Metabolic Enzyme Adaptations in Rat Skeletal Muscle

Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
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Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051269
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscle Strength and Muscle Quality in Relation to Nutrition)
Long-term intake of a ketogenic diet enhances utilization of ketone bodies, a particularly energy-efficient substrate, during exercise. However, physiological adaptation to an extremely low-carbohydrate diet has been shown to upregulate pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4, a negative regulator of glycolytic flux) content in skeletal muscle, resulting in impaired high-intensity exercise capacity. This study aimed to examine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) on endurance training-induced adaptations in ketolytic and glycolytic enzymes of rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on either a standard diet (CON), a long-chain triglyceride-containing ketogenic diet (LKD), or an MCT-containing ketogenic diet (MKD). Half the rats in each group performed a 2-h swimming exercise, 5 days a week, for 8 weeks. Endurance training significantly increased 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (OXCT, a ketolytic enzyme) protein content in epitrochlearis muscle tissue, and MKD intake additively enhanced endurance training–induced increases in OXCT protein content. LKD consumption substantially increased muscle PDK4 protein level. However, such PDK4 increases were not observed in the MKD-fed rats. In conclusion, long-term intake of ketogenic diets containing MCTs may additively enhance endurance training–induced increases in ketolytic capacity in skeletal muscle without exerting inhibitory effects on carbohydrate metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketogenic diet; endurance training; MCT; β-hydroxybutyrate; OXCT; PDK4 ketogenic diet; endurance training; MCT; β-hydroxybutyrate; OXCT; PDK4
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Fukazawa, A.; Koike, A.; Karasawa, T.; Tsutsui, M.; Kondo, S.; Terada, S. Effects of a Ketogenic Diet Containing Medium-Chain Triglycerides and Endurance Training on Metabolic Enzyme Adaptations in Rat Skeletal Muscle. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1269.

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