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Article

Circulating Ionized Magnesium as a Measure of Supplement Bioavailability: Results from a Pilot Study for Randomized Clinical Trial

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Public Health Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
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Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, George Mason University, MS1F7, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
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Think Healthy Group, Inc., 1301 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA
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Center for Magnesium Education & Research, 13-1255 Malama Street, Pahoa, HI 96778, USA
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Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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Department of Applied Health Science, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
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Weaver and Associates Consulting, LLC, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051245
Received: 24 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
Oral supplementation may improve the dietary intake of magnesium, which has been identified as a shortfall nutrient. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate appropriate methods for assessing responses to the ingestion of oral magnesium supplements, including ionized magnesium in whole blood (iMg2+) concentration, serum total magnesium concentration, and total urinary magnesium content. In a single-blinded crossover study, 17 healthy adults were randomly assigned to consume 300 mg of magnesium from MgCl2 (ReMag®, a picosized magnesium formulation) or placebo, while having a low-magnesium breakfast. Blood and urine samples were obtained for the measurement of iMg2+, serum total magnesium, and total urine magnesium, during 24 h following the magnesium supplement or placebo dosing. Bioavailability was assessed using area-under-the-curve (AUC) as well as maximum (Cmax) and time-to-maximum (Tmax) concentration. Depending on normality, data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation or median (range), and differences between responses to MgCl2 or placebo were measured using the paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Following MgCl2 administration versus placebo administration, we observed significantly greater increases in iMg2+ concentrations (AUC = 1.51 ± 0.96 vs. 0.84 ± 0.82 mg/dL•24h; Cmax = 1.38 ± 0.13 vs. 1.32 ± 0.07 mg/dL, respectively; both p < 0.05) but not in serum total magnesium (AUC = 27.00 [0, 172.93] vs. 14.55 [0, 91.18] mg/dL•24h; Cmax = 2.38 [1.97, 4.01] vs. 2.24 [1.98, 4.31] mg/dL) or in urinary magnesium (AUC = 201.74 ± 161.63 vs. 139.30 ± 92.84 mg•24h; Cmax = 26.12 [12.91, 88.63] vs. 24.38 [13.51, 81.51] mg/dL; p > 0.05). Whole blood iMg2+ may be a more sensitive measure of acute oral intake of magnesium compared to serum and urinary magnesium and may be preferred for assessing supplement bioavailability. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; iMg; biomarkers; nutritional status; diet magnesium; iMg; biomarkers; nutritional status; diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhan, J.; Wallace, T.C.; Butts, S.J.; Cao, S.; Ansu, V.; Spence, L.A.; Weaver, C.M.; Gletsu-Miller, N. Circulating Ionized Magnesium as a Measure of Supplement Bioavailability: Results from a Pilot Study for Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051245

AMA Style

Zhan J, Wallace TC, Butts SJ, Cao S, Ansu V, Spence LA, Weaver CM, Gletsu-Miller N. Circulating Ionized Magnesium as a Measure of Supplement Bioavailability: Results from a Pilot Study for Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients. 2020; 12(5):1245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051245

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhan, Jiada, Taylor C. Wallace, Sarah J. Butts, Sisi Cao, Velarie Ansu, Lisa A. Spence, Connie M. Weaver, and Nana Gletsu-Miller. 2020. "Circulating Ionized Magnesium as a Measure of Supplement Bioavailability: Results from a Pilot Study for Randomized Clinical Trial" Nutrients 12, no. 5: 1245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051245

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