Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. At the time of diagnosis, the frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in individuals with CD appears to be similar to that of the general population, although a lower body mass index and a lower rate of hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus are observed at diagnosis in CD patients. The effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in individuals with these liver and metabolic disorders is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the links between a GFD and metabolic/liver disorders in CD patients. A systematic electronic search of the literature from January 2009 to December 2019 was performed using Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Only papers written in English concerning metabolic and liver disorders in adult patients with CD were included. Out of 1195 citations, 14 eligible studies were identified. Increases in the frequency of NAFLD, weight gain, and alterations of the lipid profile suggest that important changes happen in celiac patients on a GFD, though the physiopathology of these conditions is unclear. Although a GFD is the only effective treatment available for CD, liver function, body weight, and metabolic and nutritional profiles should be monitored in patients on a GFD.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited