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Celiac Disease, Gluten-Free Diet, and Metabolic and Liver Disorders

Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition division, Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
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These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040940
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 28 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. At the time of diagnosis, the frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in individuals with CD appears to be similar to that of the general population, although a lower body mass index and a lower rate of hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus are observed at diagnosis in CD patients. The effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in individuals with these liver and metabolic disorders is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the links between a GFD and metabolic/liver disorders in CD patients. A systematic electronic search of the literature from January 2009 to December 2019 was performed using Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Only papers written in English concerning metabolic and liver disorders in adult patients with CD were included. Out of 1195 citations, 14 eligible studies were identified. Increases in the frequency of NAFLD, weight gain, and alterations of the lipid profile suggest that important changes happen in celiac patients on a GFD, though the physiopathology of these conditions is unclear. Although a GFD is the only effective treatment available for CD, liver function, body weight, and metabolic and nutritional profiles should be monitored in patients on a GFD. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; hepatic steatosis; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NASH; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; dyslipidemia; hypercholesterolemia; hypertriglyceridemia; body weight; body mass index; BMI; type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM celiac disease; gluten-free diet; hepatic steatosis; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NASH; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; dyslipidemia; hypercholesterolemia; hypertriglyceridemia; body weight; body mass index; BMI; type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM
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Valvano, M.; Longo, S.; Stefanelli, G.; Frieri, G.; Viscido, A.; Latella, G. Celiac Disease, Gluten-Free Diet, and Metabolic and Liver Disorders. Nutrients 2020, 12, 940.

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