Next Article in Journal
Bifidobacteria-Fermented Red Ginseng and Its Constituents Ginsenoside Rd and Protopanaxatriol Alleviate Anxiety/Depression in Mice by the Amelioration of Gut Dysbiosis
Previous Article in Journal
Human Milk and Lactation
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Therapeutic Potential of Breast Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles
Open AccessArticle

Feeding Formula Eliminates the Necessity of Bacterial Dysbiosis and Induces Inflammation and Injury in the Paneth Cell Disruption Murine NEC Model in an Osmolality-Dependent Manner

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Stead Family Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
3
Department of Physiology, Medical Coll5ge of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
4
Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040900 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 February 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Formula feeding is a risk factor for NEC and osmolality, which is increased by the fortification that is required for adequate growth of the infant, has been suggested as a potential cause. Our laboratory has shown that Paneth cell disruption followed by induction of dysbiosis can induce NEC-like pathology in the absence of feeds. We hypothesized adding formula feeds to the model would exacerbate intestinal injury and inflammation in an osmolality-dependent manner. NEC-like injury was induced in 14–16 day-old C57Bl/6J mice by Paneth cell disruption with dithizone or diphtheria toxin, followed by feeding rodent milk substitute with varying osmolality (250–1491 mOsm/kg H2O). Animal weight, serum cytokines and osmolality, small intestinal injury, and cecal microbial composition were quantified. Paneth cell-disrupted mice fed formula had significant NEC scores compared to controls and no longer required induction of bacterial dysbiosis. Significant increases in serum inflammatory markers, small intestinal damage, and overall mortality were osmolality-dependent and not related to microbial changes. Overall, formula feeding in combination with Paneth cell disruption induced NEC-like injury in an osmolality-dependent manner, emphasizing the importance of vigilance in designing preterm infant feeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: necrotizing enterocolitis; immature intestine; formula; osmolality; inflammation; microbiome necrotizing enterocolitis; immature intestine; formula; osmolality; inflammation; microbiome
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lueschow, S.R.; Kern, S.L.; Gong, H.; Grobe, J.L.; Segar, J.L.; Carlson, S.J.; McElroy, S.J. Feeding Formula Eliminates the Necessity of Bacterial Dysbiosis and Induces Inflammation and Injury in the Paneth Cell Disruption Murine NEC Model in an Osmolality-Dependent Manner. Nutrients 2020, 12, 900.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop