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Normal-Weight Obesity Is Associated with Increased Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Adults

Faculty of Health, Department of Nursing, University of Granada, Av. Ilustración, 60, 18016 Granada, Spain
Grupo de Ejercicio Físico y Deportes, Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones, Universidad Manuela Beltrán, Bogotá DC 110231, Colombia
ZIPATEFI (Zona de Investigaciones de Posgrados, Terapia Respiratoria y Fisioterapia de Areandina), Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina, Pereira 110231, Colombia
Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarra, Navarrabiomed- IdiSNA, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra (CHN), 31008 Pamplona, Spain
CIBER of Frailty and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Laboratorio de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Santiago 7500618, Chile
Faculty of Health and Sciences, Klaipeda University, 92294 Klaipeda, Lithuania
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud- Universidad de Boyacá, Tunja 150003, Colombia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1106;
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
Normal-weight obesity (NWO) has been shown to be associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction. However, little is known regarding this potential relationship in early adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between NWO and cardiometabolic risk factors in a large population of Colombian young adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1354 subjects (61% women), aged from 18 to 30. Anthropometric data, including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), were estimated, and the percentage of fat mass was measured through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Muscular fitness was determined by using a handgrip strength test and normalized grip strength (NGS = handgrip (kg)/body mass (kg)). A cardiometabolic risk Z-score was derived by assessing WC, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) cholesterol, fasting glucose, and systolic blood pressure. NWO was defined by the combination of excess %BF (over 25.5% for men and 38.9% for women) and a BMI < 25 kg/m2. The overall prevalence of NWO was 29.1%. Subjects with NWO have an increased risk of cardiometabolic risk compared to the normal-weight lean group (OR = 3.10). Moreover, NWO was associated with an increased risk of presenting low HDL-C (OR = 2.34), high abdominal obesity (OR = 7.27), and low NGS (OR = 3.30), p < 0.001. There is a high prevalence of NWO in American Latin young adults and this condition is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, high blood pressure, low HDL-C, high abdominal obesity, and low muscular strength early in life. Screening for adiposity in subjects with a normal BMI could help to identify young adults at a high risk of cardiometabolic abnormalities. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; normal-weight obesity; body fat; cardiometabolic risk; young adults body composition; normal-weight obesity; body fat; cardiometabolic risk; young adults
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Correa-Rodríguez, M.; González-Ruíz, K.; Rincón-Pabón, D.; Izquierdo, M.; García-Hermoso, A.; Agostinis-Sobrinho, C.; Sánchez-Capacho, N.; Roa-Cubaque, M.A.; Ramírez-Vélez, R. Normal-Weight Obesity Is Associated with Increased Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1106.

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