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Article

Maternal Protein Restriction Altered Insulin Resistance and Inflammation-Associated Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Young Adult Mouse Offspring in Response to a High-Fat Diet

by 1, 1 and 1,2,*
1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041103
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Fetal Programming)
Maternal protein restriction is associated with increased risk of insulin resistance and inflammation in adulthood offspring. Here, we investigated whether maternal protein restriction could alter the risk of metabolic syndrome in postweaning high-fat (HF)-diet-challenged offspring, with focus on epididymal adipose tissue gene expression profile. Female ICR mice were fed a control (C) or a low-protein (LP) diet for two weeks before mating and throughout gestation and lactation, and their male offspring were fed an HF diet for 22 weeks (C/HF and LP/HF groups). A subset of offspring of control dams was fed a low-fat control diet (C/C group). In response to postweaning HF diet, serum insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were increased in control offspring. Maternal LP diet decreased HOMA-IR and adipose tissue inflammation, and increased serum adiponectin level in the HF-diet-challenged offspring. Accordingly, functional analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) enriched in cytokine production were downregulated in the LP/HF group compared to the C/HF group. We also observed the several annotated gene ontology terms associated with innate immunity and phagocytosis in down-regulated DEGs between LP/HF and C/C groups. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction alleviated insulin resistance and inflammation in young offspring mice fed a HF diet but may impair development of immune system in offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose tissue; high-fat diet; inflammation; insulin resistance; mouse offspring; protein restriction adipose tissue; high-fat diet; inflammation; insulin resistance; mouse offspring; protein restriction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.; Choi, A.; Kwon, Y.H. Maternal Protein Restriction Altered Insulin Resistance and Inflammation-Associated Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Young Adult Mouse Offspring in Response to a High-Fat Diet. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1103. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041103

AMA Style

Kim J, Choi A, Kwon YH. Maternal Protein Restriction Altered Insulin Resistance and Inflammation-Associated Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Young Adult Mouse Offspring in Response to a High-Fat Diet. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1103. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041103

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Juhae, Alee Choi, and Young Hye Kwon. 2020. "Maternal Protein Restriction Altered Insulin Resistance and Inflammation-Associated Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Young Adult Mouse Offspring in Response to a High-Fat Diet" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1103. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041103

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