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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Diversity and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

1
Section of NILS-LSA, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
2
Department of Epidemiology of Aging, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
3
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Aichi Shukutoku University, Aichi 480-1197, Japan
4
Faculty of Human Life and Science, Doshisha Women’s College of Liberal Arts, Kyoto 602-0893, Japan
5
Graduate School of Nutritional Sciences, Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences, Aichi 470-0196, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041052
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 27 March 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Variety and Nutrition Status)
We examined associations between dietary diversity and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 386 men and 413 women (age range, 60–79 years at baseline) who took part in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging study from 1997 to 2000. Dietary intake was assessed using three-day dietary records and photographs. The Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity was used to determine the dietary diversity among thirteen food groups. Dietary diversity score and each food intake were examined by sex-stratified tertiles, and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to compare the risk for all-cause and cause-specific deaths across tertiles, after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking status, education, physical activity, and disease history. During a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 289 subjects (36.2%) died. Compared to the subjects in the lowest tertile, the multivariate-adjusted HR for all-cause and cancer mortality was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.94) and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33–0.98), respectively (trend p < 0.05), in subjects in the highest tertile of dietary diversity. There were no significant associations between dietary diversity score and death from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. Eating a variety of foods might contribute to longevity in older Japanese community dwellers. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary diversity; all-cause mortality; cancer mortality; Japanese; older people dietary diversity; all-cause mortality; cancer mortality; Japanese; older people
MDPI and ACS Style

Otsuka, R.; Tange, C.; Nishita, Y.; Kato, Y.; Tomida, M.; Imai, T.; Ando, F.; Shimokata, H. Dietary Diversity and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1052.

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