3.3. Nutrient Intake
The usual nutrient intakes of the respondents from the different sectors are presented in Table 3
. With regard to the percentage energy distribution of carbohydrates, protein, and fat, it was seen that the respondents’ intake of these macronutrients were within the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR), except for the protein (15.52%), which slightly exceeded the AMDR of 10% to 15% of the total energy intake.
It was also noticeable that only 7.97 g, or about 30% to 40% of dietary fiber, compared to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI); 20 to 25 g, 33.24 mg, or a little above 50% vitamin C compared to the 65 mg RNI; and 183.52 mg, or about 82% magnesium compared to the 225 mg RNI was consumed by the respondents. Moreover, only 4.42 mg or 44.2% Vitamin E, as compared to the 10 mg adequate intake (AI) and 1617.8 mg, or 81.9% of 2000 mg potassium AI was consumed. On the other hand, the usual diet of the participants had selenium (116.84 µg), which was about 70% higher than the RNI, and sodium (1038.6 mg) that was 51.9% higher than the AI (Table 3
The prevalence of an inadequate intake of protein was only 24%, while as a percentage of the total energy, it indicated that there was no inadequacy of protein among working adults. Also, there was no inadequacy of total fat as a percentage of total energy. However, it was noticeable that there was an excessive intake of total fat (34%) and protein (58%) as a percentage of the total energy, while a considerably high percentage of inadequacy of carbohydrates (48%) occurred.
In Table 4
, inadequate and excessive intakes are shown. A high prevalence of inadequate intakes was found for iron (99%), folate (98%), riboflavin (96%), calcium (94%), vitamin c (87%), and thiamin (76%), followed by vitamin A retinol equivalent RE (40%). Niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, phosphorus, zinc, and selenium intakes were adequate among working adults. The whole distribution of fiber intake did not meet the range of the recommended fiber intake (RNI: 20–25 g). The mean levels of vitamin D (4 µg/d), vitamin E (4.4 mgα−TE), sodium (1039 mg/d), and potassium (1618 mg/d) were far below their respective AIs (7.5 µg/d, 10 mgα−TE, 500 mg/d, and 2000 mg/d, respectively). The mean magnesium intake was also lower than the recommended magnesium intake (RNI: 225 mg/d).
Other nutrient intakes were compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR) and/or tolerable upper intake level (UL).
3.4. Food Intake
Refined rice, fats and oil, pork, fish, and other vegetables were the top five foods most consumed. The next five food items were chicken, egg and egg dishes, other sweetened beverages, dark-green leafy vegetables, and deep-yellow vegetables. The top five food sources of energy were rice, pork, fats and oils (mostly derived from plant sources), chicken, and bread. Half of the total carbohydrates came solely from refined rice, followed by bread, other sweetened beverages, noodles, and soft drinks. Refined rice, pork, fish, chicken, and egg and egg dishes were the top five contributors of protein. Forty percent (40%) of the total fat intake came from pork, while the other food sources were fats and oil (mostly plant sources), chicken, sausages, and egg (Figure 2
Pork, refined rice, bread, noodles, and chicken were the top five food sources of thiamin. For riboflavin, pork, egg, chicken, fish, and powdered milk were the top contributors. Pork, chicken, deep-yellow vegetables, dark-green leafy vegetables, and fish were the top five food sources of vitamin A. Although almost half (42%) of the total vitamin C came from fruits and dark-green leafy vegetables, the prevalence of inadequate levels of vitamin C was still high. Bread, other vegetables, beans, nuts. and peas, dark-green leafy vegetables, and egg were the top five contributors of folate. Although iron and calcium content is not high in rice, it turned out that rice was the top contributor of iron, and the second highest for calcium. The other food sources of iron were pork, bread, sausages, and chicken, whereas for calcium, it was fish, chicken, powdered milk, and pork.
As seen in Figure 3
, with regard to total energy intake, Filipino working adults consumed a significantly higher percentage of rice (36%) and pork (15%) and significantly lower percentages of fats and oils (5%), chicken (4%), as well as bread (4%). In terms of carbohydrates, rice (59%) had the highest percentage contribution, followed by bread (5%), other sweetened beverages (5%), noodles (4%), and soft drinks (3%). Contributions to the total fat intake were made mainly by the pork group (40%), followed by fats and oils (16%), chicken (14%), sausages (6%), and egg and egg dishes (4%). Lastly, with respect to protein intake, the rice group (19%) had the highest percentage contribution, preceded by pork (17%), fish (17%), and egg and egg dishes (5%).
As seen in Figure 4
, pork, refined rice, bread, noodles, and chicken were the top five food sources of thiamin. For riboflavin, pork, egg, chicken, fish, ye and powdered milk were the top contributors. Pork, chicken, deep-yellow vegetables, dark-green leafy vegetables, and fish were the top five food sources of vitamin A. Although almost half (42%) of the total vitamin C came from fruits and dark-green leafy vegetables. the prevalence of inadequate vitamin C was still high. Bread, other vegetables, beans, nuts, and peas, dark-green leafy vegetables, and egg were the top five contributors of folate.
As seen in Figure 5
, fish, refined rice, cheese, pork, and chicken were the top five food sources of calcium, while iron mainly came from refined rice, pork, sausage, bread, and chicken in the usual diet of Filipino working adults. Although calcium can be found in large amounts in beans and lentils, seeds, fish (e.g., salmon and sardines), and green leafy vegetables, the diets of working adults seemed to lack these food items.