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Flavonoids as Epigenetic Modulators for Prostate Cancer Prevention

1
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, 43125 Parma, Italy
2
National Institute of Biostructure and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro 305, 00136 Rome, Italy
3
Centre for Molecular and Translational Oncology (COMT), University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/a, 43124 Parma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041010
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 1 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 6 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids and Cancer Prevention)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a multifactorial disease with an unclear etiology. Due to its high prevalence, long latency, and slow progression, PCa is an ideal target for chemoprevention strategies. Many research studies have highlighted the positive effects of natural flavonoids on chronic diseases, including PCa. Different classes of dietary flavonoids exhibit anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-aging, cardioprotective, anti-viral/bacterial and anti-carcinogenic properties. We overviewed the most recent evidence of the antitumoral effects exerted by dietary flavonoids, with a special focus on their epigenetic action in PCa. Epigenetic alterations have been identified as key initiating events in several kinds of cancer. Many dietary flavonoids have been found to reverse DNA aberrations that promote neoplastic transformation, particularly for PCa. The epigenetic targets of the actions of flavonoids include oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, indirectly controlled through the regulation of epigenetic enzymes such as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), histone acetyltransferase (HAT), and histone deacetylase (HDAC). In addition, flavonoids were found capable of restoring miRNA and lncRNA expression that is altered during diseases. The optimization of the use of flavonoids as natural epigenetic modulators for chemoprevention and as a possible treatment of PCa and other kinds of cancers could represent a promising and valid strategy to inhibit carcinogenesis and fight cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; flavonoids; epigenetic regulation; miRNAs; green tea catechins; natural compounds; lncRNAs; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; chemoprevention prostate cancer; flavonoids; epigenetic regulation; miRNAs; green tea catechins; natural compounds; lncRNAs; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; chemoprevention
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Izzo, S.; Naponelli, V.; Bettuzzi, S. Flavonoids as Epigenetic Modulators for Prostate Cancer Prevention. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1010.

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