To evaluate possibility as a skin whitening agent of Sorghum bicolor
), its antioxidant activity and anti-melanogenic effect on 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-induced melanogenesis in B16/F10 melanoma cells were investigated. The result of total phenolic contents (TPC) indicated that 60% ethanol extract of S. bicolor
(ESB) has the highest contents than other ethanol extracts. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect. These results showed ESB has significant antioxidant activities. Inhibitory effect against tyrosinase was also assessed using L-tyrosine (IC50
value = 89.25 μg/mL) and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) as substrates. In addition, ESB treatment effectively inhibited melanin production in IBMX-induced B16/F10 melanoma cells. To confirm the mechanism on anti-melanogenic effect of ESB, we examined melanogenesis-related proteins. ESB downregulated melanogenesis by decreasing expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1. Finally, 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), 1,3-O
-dicaffeoylglycerol and tricin as the main compounds of ESB were analyzed using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility separation-quadrupole time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-IMS-QTOF/MS2
). These findings suggest that ESB may have physiological potential to be used skin whitening material.
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