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Modulation of Cellular Biochemistry, Epigenetics and Metabolomics by Ketone Bodies. Implications of the Ketogenic Diet in the Physiology of the Organism and Pathological States

1
Department of Molecular Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
2
INSERM Unit 1060, CarMeN Laboratory, 165 Chemin du Grand Revoyet - BP12, F-69495 Pierre Bénite CEDEX, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030788
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 17 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Ketone bodies (KBs), comprising β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone, are a set of fuel molecules serving as an alternative energy source to glucose. KBs are mainly produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of fasting, and prolonged or intense physical activity. In diabetes, mainly type-1, ketoacidosis is the pathological response to glucose malabsorption. Endogenous production of ketone bodies is promoted by consumption of a ketogenic diet (KD), a diet virtually devoid of carbohydrates. Despite its recently widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is only partially understood, and ranges from physiologically beneficial outcomes in particular circumstances to potentially harmful effects. Here, we firstly review ketone body metabolism and molecular signaling, to then link the understanding of ketone bodies’ biochemistry to controversies regarding their putative or proven medical benefits. We overview the physiological consequences of ketone bodies’ consumption, focusing on (i) KB-induced histone post-translational modifications, particularly β-hydroxybutyrylation and acetylation, which appears to be the core epigenetic mechanisms of activity of β-hydroxybutyrate to modulate inflammation; (ii) inflammatory responses to a KD; (iii) proven benefits of the KD in the context of neuronal disease and cancer; and (iv) consequences of the KD’s application on cardiovascular health and on physical performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketone bodies; β-hydroxybutyrate; ketogenic diet; epigenetics; inflammatory response; cancer ketone bodies; β-hydroxybutyrate; ketogenic diet; epigenetics; inflammatory response; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dąbek, A.; Wojtala, M.; Pirola, L.; Balcerczyk, A. Modulation of Cellular Biochemistry, Epigenetics and Metabolomics by Ketone Bodies. Implications of the Ketogenic Diet in the Physiology of the Organism and Pathological States. Nutrients 2020, 12, 788. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030788

AMA Style

Dąbek A, Wojtala M, Pirola L, Balcerczyk A. Modulation of Cellular Biochemistry, Epigenetics and Metabolomics by Ketone Bodies. Implications of the Ketogenic Diet in the Physiology of the Organism and Pathological States. Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):788. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030788

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dąbek, Arkadiusz, Martyna Wojtala, Luciano Pirola, and Aneta Balcerczyk. 2020. "Modulation of Cellular Biochemistry, Epigenetics and Metabolomics by Ketone Bodies. Implications of the Ketogenic Diet in the Physiology of the Organism and Pathological States" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 788. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030788

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