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Dairy Consumption at Snack Meal Occasions and the Overall Quality of Diet during Childhood. Prospective and Cross-Sectional Analyses from the IDEFICS/I.Family Cohort

by Iris Iglesia 1,2,3,4, Timm Intemann 5,6, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo 1,2,3,7,*, Valeria Pala 8, Antje Hebestreit 5, Maike Wolters 5, Paola Russo 9, Toomas Veidebaum 10, Stalo Papoutsou 11, Peter Nagy 12, Gabriele Eiben 13,14, Patrizia Rise 15, Stefaan De Henauw 16 and Luis A Moreno 1,2,3,7 on behalf of the IDEFICS/I.Family consortia
Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), 50013, Zaragoza, Spain
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón); 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Red de Salud Materno-infantil y del Desarrollo (SAMID), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Institute of Statistics, Bremen University, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy
Epidemology & Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, 83100 Avellino, Italy
Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, 11619 Tallinn, Estonia
Research and Education Institute of Child Health, 2018 Strovolos, Cyprus
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, 7622 Pécs, Hungary
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Biomedicine and Public Health, School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, 541 28 Skövde, Sweden
Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 642;
Received: 4 February 2020 / Revised: 21 February 2020 / Accepted: 25 February 2020 / Published: 28 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
There is scarce information on the influence of dairy consumption between main meals on the overall diet quality through childhood, constituting the main aim of this research. From the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study, and based on the data availability in each period due to drop outs, 8807 children aged 2 to 9.9 years from eight European countries at baseline (T0: 2007–2008); 5085 children after two years (T1); and 1991 after four years (T3), were included in these analyses. Dietary intake and the Diet Quality Index (DQI) were assessed by two 24 hours dietary recalls (24-HDR) and food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of milk and yogurt (p = 0.04) and cheese (p < 0.001) at snack meal occasions was associated with higher DQI scores in T0; milk and yogurt (p < 0.001), and cheese (p < 0.001) in T1; and cheese (p = 0.05) in T3. Consumers of milk (p = 0.02), yogurt (p < 0.001), or cheese (p < 0.001) throughout T0 and T1 at all snack moments had significantly higher scores of DQI compared to non-consumers. This was also observed with the consumption of cheese between T1 and T3 (p = 0.03). Consumption of dairy products at snack moments through childhood is associated with a better overall diet quality, being a good strategy to improve it in this period. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy; snack; diet quality; children dairy; snack; diet quality; children
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Iglesia, I.; Intemann, T.; De Miguel-Etayo, P.; Pala, V.; Hebestreit, A.; Wolters, M.; Russo, P.; Veidebaum, T.; Papoutsou, S.; Nagy, P.; Eiben, G.; Rise, P.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A., on behalf of the IDEFICS/I.Family consortia; Dairy Consumption at Snack Meal Occasions and the Overall Quality of Diet during Childhood. Prospective and Cross-Sectional Analyses from the IDEFICS/I.Family Cohort. Nutrients 2020, 12, 642.

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