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Gut Microbiota as Important Mediator Between Diet and DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications in the Host

1
Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences (DIBEST), University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
2
Medical Laboratory, 87100 Cosenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030597
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 21 February 2020 / Accepted: 21 February 2020 / Published: 25 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Epigenetics)
The human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of trillions of microorganisms that inhabit symbiotically on and in the human intestine. They carry out, through the production of a series of metabolites, many important metabolic functions that complement the activity of mammalian enzymes and play an essential role in host digestion. Interindividual variability of microbiota structure, and consequently of the expression of its genes (microbiome), was largely ascribed to the nutritional regime. Diet influences microbiota composition and function with short- and long-term effects. In spite of the vast literature, molecular mechanisms underlying these effects still remain elusive. In this review, we summarized the current evidence on the role exerted by gut microbiota and, more specifically, by its metabolites in the establishment of the host epigenome. The interest in this topic stems from the fact that, by modulating DNA methylation and histone modifications, the gut microbiota does affect the cell activities of the hosting organism. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; microbiome; diet; DNA methylation; histone modification; host epigenome gut microbiota; microbiome; diet; DNA methylation; histone modification; host epigenome
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D’Aquila, P.; Lynn Carelli, L.; De Rango, F.; Passarino, G.; Bellizzi, D. Gut Microbiota as Important Mediator Between Diet and DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications in the Host. Nutrients 2020, 12, 597.

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