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Spanish People with Type 2 Diabetes Show an Improved Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Avantmedic, 25008 Lleida, Spain
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Health Sciences Research Institute & University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain
Lleida Institute for Biomedical Research Dr. Pifarré Foundation IRB Lleida, University of Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
DAP-Cat Group, Unitat de Suport a la Recerca de Barcelona, Institut Universitari d’Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol (IDIAP Jordi Gol), 08007 Barcelona, Spain
Center for Biomedical Research on Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Diseases (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
Conselleria de Sanitat Universal i Salut Pública, Generalitat Valenciana, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, Serra Hunter Lecture, University of Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
Primary Health Care Center Igualada Nord, 08700 Igualada, Spain
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau & Sant Pau Biomedical Research Institute (IIB Sant Pau), 08041 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Medicine, Barcelona Autonomous University (UAB), 08035 Barcelona, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 560;
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 15 February 2020 / Accepted: 17 February 2020 / Published: 20 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Health—New Insights into an Old Story)
The aim of this study was to assess the dietary pattern (i.e., Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) and healthy eating) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with those without diabetes. In addition, we explored clinical factors associated with the dietary pattern. This cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of 476 participants (238 with T2D and 238 participants without diabetes, matched for age and sex). The alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score and the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) were calculated. Statistical analysis included comparison between groups and multivariable models. Participants with T2D showed higher aMED and aHEI scores (mean (SD): 4.3 (1.5) and 43.9 (6.5), respectively) in comparison with the control group (3.5 (1.8) and 39.4 (7.4), respectively; p < 0.001). In addition, a higher proportion of participants with T2D in higher tertiles of aMED (21.8%) and aHEI (39.9%) was observed compared with participants without diabetes (11.3% for the aMED, and 19.3% for the aHEI; p < 0.001). The adjusted multivariable analysis revealed that T2D (p < 0.001), increasing age (p = 0.006 and p = 0.030, respectively), and physical activity (p = 0.009) were positively associated with higher aMED and aHEI scores. Dyslipidemia and female gender were positively associated with aMED and aHEI (p = 0.031 and p < 0.001, respectively). The specific multivariable analysis for the group with T2D yielded a positive association of age (p < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (p = 0.021) with aMED. Regarding the aHEI, only female gender was positively related with this score in diabetes participants (p = 0.025). Participants with T2D showed a higher adherence to the MedDiet and a healthier eating pattern. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; dietary quality index; medical nutrition therapy; dietary pattern; Mediterranean diet; healthy eating type 2 diabetes; dietary quality index; medical nutrition therapy; dietary pattern; Mediterranean diet; healthy eating
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Alcubierre, N.; Granado-Casas, M.; Real, J.; Perpiñán, H.; Rubinat, E.; Falguera, M.; Castelblanco, E.; Franch-Nadal, J.; Mauricio, D. Spanish People with Type 2 Diabetes Show an Improved Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. Nutrients 2020, 12, 560.

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