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Open AccessArticle

Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Population and Its Relationship with Early Vascular Aging according to Sex and Age: EVA Study

1
Primary Care Research Unit of Salamanca (APISAL), Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca (IBSAL), 37005 Salamanca, Spain
2
Department of Statistics, University of Salamanca (USAL), IGA Research Group, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
3
Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
4
Health Service of Castilla and Leon (SACyL), 37005 Salamanca, Spain
5
Spanish Network for Preventive Activities and Health Promotion (redIAPP), Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 587, 08007 Barcelona, Spain
6
Iberian Network on Arterial Structure, Central Hemodynamics and Neurocognition, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
7
Department of Medicine, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
8
Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Salamanca, 37005 Salamanca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041025
Received: 17 February 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Health—New Insights into an Old Story)
The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MDA) and its components on early vascular aging (EVA) in a Spanish population sample free of cardiovascular disease and to analyze the differences by sex. Methods: We recruited 501 individuals aged 35–75 without cardiovascular disease by random sampling (55.90 ± 14.24 years, 49.70% men). EVA was defined in two steps: Step 1: subjects with vascular damage in carotid arteries or peripheral artery disease were classified as EVA. Step 2: subjects at the percentile of the combined Vascular Aging Index (VAI) were classified; ≥ p90 was considered EVA and < p90 was considered normal vascular aging (NVA), estimated using the following formula (VAI = (log (1.09) × 10 cIMT + log (1.14) cfPWV) × 39.1 + 4.76 by age and sex. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was measured by SphigmoCor System® and carotid intima-media thickness by Sonosite Micromax® ultrasound and classified thus: values ≥ Percentile 90 were considered EVA and those < Percentile 90 as NVA, with population percentiles analyzed. The principal result variable was assessed using the 14-item MEDAS questionnaire, developed and validated by the PREDIMED group, comprising 12 questions about the frequency of food consumption and two questions regarding the Spanish population’s typical eating habits. Results: MDA was observed by 25% (17% men and 34% women). EVA was present in 17% (29% men and 4% women). The adjusted logistic regression models showed that an increase in MDA decreases the probability of EVA in the global analysis (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.16–0.82). In the analysis by sex, this association was only seen in men (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.12–0.86), but not in women (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.04–2.50). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases the probability of presenting EVA. In the analysis by sex, this association applies only to men. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; early vascular aging; normal vascular aging; general population Mediterranean diet; early vascular aging; normal vascular aging; general population
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gómez Sánchez, M.; Gómez Sánchez, L.; Patino-Alonso, M.C.; Alonso-Domínguez, R.; Sánchez-Aguadero, N.; Lugones-Sánchez, C.; Rodríguez Sánchez, E.; García Ortiz, L.; Gómez-Marcos, M.A. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Population and Its Relationship with Early Vascular Aging according to Sex and Age: EVA Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1025.

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