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A Diterpenoid, 14-Deoxy-11, 12-Didehydroandrographolide, in Andrographis paniculata Reduces Steatohepatitis and Liver Injury in Mice Fed a High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet

1
Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-shih Road, Taichung 404, Taiwan
2
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors are contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020523
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 17 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrition for Hepatitis)
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND), a diterpenoid in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, acts as a bioactive phytonutrient that can treat many diseases. To investigate the protective effects of deAND on reducing fatty liver disease, male mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet without or with 0.05% and 0.1% deAND supplementation. Cholesterol accumulation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities in liver and liver injury were evaluated after deAND treatment. The results show that deAND treatment for seven weeks reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and lowered hepatic cholesterol accumulation, tumor nuclear factor-α, and histological lesions. The 0.1% deAND treatment reduced HFHC diet-induced apoptosis by lowering the caspase 3/pro-caspase 3 ratio. After 11 weeks of deAND treatment, increased NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), capase-1, and interleukin-1β protein levels in liver were suppressed by deAND treatment. In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression, heme oxygenase-1 protein expression, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased in mice fed the HFHC diet. However, those activities of antioxidant enzymes or proteins were also upregulated by 0.1% deAND treatment. Furthermore, deAND treatment tended to lower hepatic lipid peroxides. Finally, deAND treatment reversed the depletion of hepatic glutamate level induced by the HFHC diet. These results indicate that deAND may ameliorate HFHC diet-induced steatohepatitis and liver injury by increasing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Andrographis paniculata; 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND); NLRP3 inflammasome; liver injury; steatohepatitis Andrographis paniculata; 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND); NLRP3 inflammasome; liver injury; steatohepatitis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.-T.; Chen, H.-W.; Lii, C.-K.; Jhuang, J.-H.; Huang, C.-S.; Li, M.-L.; Yao, H.-T. A Diterpenoid, 14-Deoxy-11, 12-Didehydroandrographolide, in Andrographis paniculata Reduces Steatohepatitis and Liver Injury in Mice Fed a High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet. Nutrients 2020, 12, 523.

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