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Open AccessArticle

Oropharyngeal Colostrum Positively Modulates the Inflammatory Response in Preterm Neonates

Unit of Neonatology, Pediatric Service, Hospital Universitario Materno-Infantil Virgen de las Nieves, 18014 Granada, Spain
Department of Physiology, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix Verdú”, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Pediatrics Department, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Institute of Biosanitary Research of Granada, Maternal and Child Health Network, Carlos III Institute, 28020 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 413;
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2020 / Accepted: 1 February 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
During the first days of life, premature infants have physiological difficulties swallowing, thereby missing out on the benefits of breastfeeding. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of oropharyngeal mother’s milk administration in the inflammatory signaling of extremely premature infants. Neonates (n = 100) (<32 week’s gestation and/or <1500 g) were divided into two groups: mother’s milk group (n = 48), receiving 0.2 mL of oropharyngeal mother’s milk every 4 h for the first 15 days of life, and a control group (n = 52), not receiving oropharyngeal mother’s milk. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferón gamma (IFN-γ) were assessed at 1, 3, 15, and 30 days of postnatal life. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The rate of common neonatal morbidities in both groups was similar. The mother’s milk group achieved full enteral feeding earlier, and showed a decrease in Il-6 on days 15 and 30, in IL-8 on day 30, and in TNF-α and INF-γ on day 15, as well as an increase in IL-1ra on days 3 and 15 and in IL-10 on day 30. Oropharyngeal mother’s milk administration for 15 days decreases the pro-inflammatory state of preterm neonates and provides full enteral nutrition earlier, which could have a positive influence on the development of the immune system and inflammatory response, thereby positively influencing other developmental outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: colostrum administration; premature neonates; inflammation; clinical outcomes colostrum administration; premature neonates; inflammation; clinical outcomes
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Martín-Álvarez, E.; Diaz-Castro, J.; Peña-Caballero, M.; Serrano-López, L.; Moreno-Fernández, J.; Sánchez-Martínez, B.; Martín-Peregrina, F.; Alonso-Moya, M.; Maldonado-Lozano, J.; Hurtado-Suazo, J.A.; Ochoa, J.J. Oropharyngeal Colostrum Positively Modulates the Inflammatory Response in Preterm Neonates. Nutrients 2020, 12, 413.

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