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Open AccessArticle

The Elapsed Time between Dinner and the Midpoint of Sleep is Associated with Adiposity in Young Women

1
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, School of Pharmacy and Food Science, University of Barcelona, 08921 Barcelona, Spain
2
INSA-UB, Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute, University of Barcelona, 08921 Barcelona, Spain
3
Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio 57072-900, Brazil
4
August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
5
CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
6
Department of Health Sciences, Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Cholula 72810, Mexico
7
Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, School of Pharmacy and Food Science, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Dr. Cambras and Dr. Izquierdo-Pulido share senior authorship.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020410
Received: 6 January 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Good Time to Eat: The Impact of Time of Day on Health Outcomes)
Meal timing relative to sleep/wake schedules is relevant in the search for obesity risk factors. However, clock time does not accurately characterize the timing of food intake in the context of internal circadian timing. Therefore, we studied elapsed between dinner and the midpoint of sleep (TDM) as a practical approach to evaluate meal timing relative to internal timing, and its implications on obesity. To do so, adiposity, sleep, diet, physical activity, and TDM were measured in 133 women. The participants were grouped into four categories according to their sleep timing behavior (early-bed/early-rise; early-bed/late-rise; late-bed/early-rise; late-bed/late-rise). Differences among the categories were tested using ANOVA, while restricted cubic splines were calculated to study the association between TDM and adiposity. Our results show that, although participants had dinner at about the same time, those that had the shortest TDM (early-bed/early-rise group) were found to have significantly higher BMI and waist circumference values (2.3 kg/m2 and 5.2 cm) than the other groups. In addition, a TDM of 6 h was associated with the lowest values of adiposity. The TDM could be a practical approach to personalizing meal timing based on individual sleep/wake schedules. Thus, according to our findings, dining 6 h before the midpoint of sleep is an important finding and could be vital for future nutritional recommendations and for obesity prevention and treatment.
Keywords: sleep timing; midpoint of sleep; meal timing; body mass index; adiposity sleep timing; midpoint of sleep; meal timing; body mass index; adiposity
MDPI and ACS Style

Zerón-Rugerio, M.F.; Longo-Silva, G.; Hernáez, Á.; Ortega-Regules, A.E.; Cambras, T.; Izquierdo-Pulido, M. The Elapsed Time between Dinner and the Midpoint of Sleep is Associated with Adiposity in Young Women. Nutrients 2020, 12, 410.

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