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Article

Potential Risk of Higenamine Misuse in Sports: Evaluation of Lotus Plumule Extract Products and a Human Study

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School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Graduate Institute of Data Science, College of Management, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
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National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County, 350, Taiwan
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School of Chinese Medicine for Post-Baccalaureate, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan
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Chinese Medicine Department, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan
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Department of Sports Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Substance and Behavior Addiction Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Drug Development and Value Creation Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020285
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
Since 2017, higenamine has been added to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list as a β2-agonist prohibited at all times for sportspersons. According to WADA’s report, positive cases of higenamine misuse have been increasing yearly. However, higenamine occurs naturally in the Chinese herb lotus plumule—the green embryo of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) seeds—commercially available as concentrated powder on the Asian market. This study evaluated the major phytochemical components of lotus plumule products using an appropriate extraction method, followed by a human study in which the products were orally administered in multiple doses to investigate the risk of doping violations. Comparing various extraction methods revealed that optimized microwave-assisted extraction exhibited the highest extraction efficiency (extraction time, 26 min; power, 1046 W; and temperature, 120 °C). Subsequently, the alkaloids in lotus plumule products were quantitatively confirmed and compared. Human study participants (n = 6) consumed 0.8 g of lotus plumule (equivalent to 679.6 μg of higenamine) three times daily for three consecutive days. All participants’ urinary higenamine concentrations exceeded the WADA reporting cut-off of 10.0 ng/mL. Accordingly, lotus plumule consumption may engender adverse analytical findings regarding higenamine. Athletes should avoid consuming lotus plumule-containing products during in- and out-of-competition periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: higenamine; lotus plumule; microwave-assisted extraction; doping higenamine; lotus plumule; microwave-assisted extraction; doping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yen, C.-C.; Tung, C.-W.; Chang, C.-W.; Tsai, C.-C.; Hsu, M.-C.; Wu, Y.-T. Potential Risk of Higenamine Misuse in Sports: Evaluation of Lotus Plumule Extract Products and a Human Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 285. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020285

AMA Style

Yen C-C, Tung C-W, Chang C-W, Tsai C-C, Hsu M-C, Wu Y-T. Potential Risk of Higenamine Misuse in Sports: Evaluation of Lotus Plumule Extract Products and a Human Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(2):285. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020285

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yen, Ching-Chi, Chun-Wei Tung, Chih-Wei Chang, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Mei-Chich Hsu, and Yu-Tse Wu. 2020. "Potential Risk of Higenamine Misuse in Sports: Evaluation of Lotus Plumule Extract Products and a Human Study" Nutrients 12, no. 2: 285. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020285

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