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Article

High-Load Resistance Exercise Augments Androgen Receptor–DNA Binding and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling without Increases in Serum/Muscle Androgens or Androgen Receptor Content

1
Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Robbins College of Health and Human Sciences, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76706, USA
2
Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
3
School of Exercise and Sport Science, Mayborn College of Health Sciences, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, TX 76513, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123829
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the effect of single bouts of volume- and intensity-equated low- (LL) and high-load (HL) full-body resistance exercise (RE) on AR-DNA binding, serum/muscle testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, muscle androgen receptor (AR), and AR-DNA binding; and, (2) to determine the effect of RE on sarcoplasmic and nucleoplasmic β-catenin concentrations in order to determine their impact on mediating AR-DNA binding in the absence/presence of serum/muscle androgen and AR protein. In a cross-over design, 10 resistance-trained males completed volume- and intensity-equated LL and HL full-body RE. Blood and muscle samples were collected at pre-, 3 h-, and 24 h post-exercise. Separate 2 × 3 factorial analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures and pairwise comparisons with a Bonferroni adjustment were used to analyze the main effects. No significant differences were observed in muscle AR, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or serum total testosterone in either condition (p > 0.05). Serum-free testosterone was significantly decreased 3 h post-exercise and remained significantly less than baseline 24 h post-exercise in both conditions (p < 0.05). In response to HL, AR-DNA binding significantly increased at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were observed at any time in response to LL (p > 0.05). Moreover, sarcoplasmic β-catenin was significantly greater in HL (p < 0.05) without significant changes in nucleoplasmic β-catenin (p > 0.05). In conclusion, increases in AR-DNA binding in response to HL RE indicate AR signaling may be load-dependent. Furthermore, despite the lack of increase in serum and muscle androgens or AR content following HL RE, elevations in AR-DNA binding with elevated sarcoplasmic β-catenin suggests β-catenin may be facilitating this response. View Full-Text
Keywords: androgen receptor; β-catenin; skeletal muscle; cell signaling; Wnt signaling; hypertrophy; resistance exercise; testosterone; dihydrotestosterone; load androgen receptor; β-catenin; skeletal muscle; cell signaling; Wnt signaling; hypertrophy; resistance exercise; testosterone; dihydrotestosterone; load
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cardaci, T.D.; Machek, S.B.; Wilburn, D.T.; Heileson, J.L.; Willoughby, D.S. High-Load Resistance Exercise Augments Androgen Receptor–DNA Binding and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling without Increases in Serum/Muscle Androgens or Androgen Receptor Content. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123829

AMA Style

Cardaci TD, Machek SB, Wilburn DT, Heileson JL, Willoughby DS. High-Load Resistance Exercise Augments Androgen Receptor–DNA Binding and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling without Increases in Serum/Muscle Androgens or Androgen Receptor Content. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123829

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cardaci, Thomas D., Steven B. Machek, Dylan T. Wilburn, Jeffery L. Heileson, and Darryn S. Willoughby. 2020. "High-Load Resistance Exercise Augments Androgen Receptor–DNA Binding and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling without Increases in Serum/Muscle Androgens or Androgen Receptor Content" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3829. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123829

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