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Open AccessArticle

Citrate Supplementation Restores the Impaired Mineralisation Resulting from the Acidic Microenvironment: An In Vitro Study

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Biomedical Science and Technology Lab, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Electron Microscopy Platform, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM Care and Research, Via Corriera 1, 48033 Cotignola (RA), Italy
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Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Via Pupilli 1, University of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123779
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Nutrients on Acid-Base Balance)
Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone-remodelling disorders based on excessive mineral matrix resorption and inhibition of bone formation, but also affects the homeostasis of citrate, which is an essential player in maintaining the acid–base balance and in driving the mineralisation process. This study aimed to investigate the impact of acidosis on the osteogenic properties of bone-forming cells and the effects of citrate supplementation in restoring the osteogenic features impaired by the acidic milieu. For this purpose, human mesenchymal stromal cells were cultured in an osteogenic medium and the extracellular matrix mineralisation was analysed at the micro- and nano-level, both in neutral and acidic conditions and after treatment with calcium citrate and potassium citrate. The acidic milieu significantly decreased the citrate release and hindered the organisation of the extracellular matrix, but the citrate supplementation increased collagen production and, particularly calcium citrate, promoted the mineralisation process. Moreover, the positive effect of citrate supplementation was observed also in the physiological microenvironment. This in vitro study proves that the mineral matrix organisation is influenced by citrate availability in the microenvironment surrounding bone-forming cells, thus providing a biological basis for using citrate-based supplements in the management of bone-remodelling disorders related to chronic low-grade acidosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: acidosis; bone marrow stromal cells; calcium citrate; potassium citrate; mineralisation; osteoblast; osteoclast acidosis; bone marrow stromal cells; calcium citrate; potassium citrate; mineralisation; osteoblast; osteoclast
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perut, F.; Graziani, G.; Columbaro, M.; Caudarella, R.; Baldini, N.; Granchi, D. Citrate Supplementation Restores the Impaired Mineralisation Resulting from the Acidic Microenvironment: An In Vitro Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3779. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123779

AMA Style

Perut F, Graziani G, Columbaro M, Caudarella R, Baldini N, Granchi D. Citrate Supplementation Restores the Impaired Mineralisation Resulting from the Acidic Microenvironment: An In Vitro Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3779. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123779

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perut, Francesca; Graziani, Gabriela; Columbaro, Marta; Caudarella, Renata; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella. 2020. "Citrate Supplementation Restores the Impaired Mineralisation Resulting from the Acidic Microenvironment: An In Vitro Study" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3779. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123779

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