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Review

The Gut Microbiome, Aging, and Longevity: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2
Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3
Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
4
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
5
Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
6
Center for Microbiome Innovation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
7
Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA
8
VA San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA 92161, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3759; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123759
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota in Cognition, Behaviour and Alzheimer's Disease)
Aging is determined by complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors. Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiome lies at the core of many age-associated changes, including immune system dysregulation and susceptibility to diseases. The gut microbiota undergoes extensive changes across the lifespan, and age-related processes may influence the gut microbiota and its related metabolic alterations. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current literature on aging-associated alterations in diversity, composition, and functional features of the gut microbiota. We identified 27 empirical human studies of normal and successful aging suitable for inclusion. Alpha diversity of microbial taxa, functional pathways, and metabolites was higher in older adults, particularly among the oldest-old adults, compared to younger individuals. Beta diversity distances significantly differed across various developmental stages and were different even between oldest-old and younger-old adults. Differences in taxonomic composition and functional potential varied across studies, but Akkermansia was most consistently reported to be relatively more abundant with aging, whereas Faecalibacterium, Bacteroidaceae, and Lachnospiraceae were relatively reduced. Older adults have reduced pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid synthesis; however, oldest-old adults exhibited functional differences that distinguished their microbiota from that of young-old adults, such as greater potential for short-chain fatty acid production and increased butyrate derivatives. Although a definitive interpretation is limited by the cross-sectional design of published reports, we integrated findings of microbial composition and downstream functional pathways and metabolites, offering possible explanations regarding age-related processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: centenarians; microbes; metabolites; inflammation; immunosenescence; cognition; functional potential; healthy aging centenarians; microbes; metabolites; inflammation; immunosenescence; cognition; functional potential; healthy aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Badal, V.D.; Vaccariello, E.D.; Murray, E.R.; Yu, K.E.; Knight, R.; Jeste, D.V.; Nguyen, T.T. The Gut Microbiome, Aging, and Longevity: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3759. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123759

AMA Style

Badal VD, Vaccariello ED, Murray ER, Yu KE, Knight R, Jeste DV, Nguyen TT. The Gut Microbiome, Aging, and Longevity: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3759. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123759

Chicago/Turabian Style

Badal, Varsha D., Eleonora D. Vaccariello, Emily R. Murray, Kasey E. Yu, Rob Knight, Dilip V. Jeste, and Tanya T. Nguyen. 2020. "The Gut Microbiome, Aging, and Longevity: A Systematic Review" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3759. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123759

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