This prospective study investigates age-dependent changes in anthropometric data and body composition over a period of two decades in consideration of physical activity and diet in community-dwelling subjects ≥60 years. Overall, 401 subjects with median follow-up time of 12 years were examined. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical activity was assessed via a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was examined by 3-day dietary records. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze the influence of age, sex, physical activity and energy/protein intake on anthropometric data and body composition by considering year of entry, use of diuretics and diagnosis of selected diseases. At baseline, median values for daily energy and protein intakes were 8.5 megajoule and 81 g and physical activity index was 1.7. After adjusting for covariates, advancing age was associated with parabolic changes indicating overall changes from age 60 to 90 years in women and men in body mass: −4.7 kg, −5.0 kg; body mass index: +0.04 kg/m2
, −0.33 kg/m2
; absolute FFM: −2.8 kg, −3.5 kg; absolute FM: −1.8 kg, −1.2 kg and waist circumference: +16 cm, +12 cm, respectively. No age-dependent changes were found for upper arm circumference and relative (%) FFM. Dietary and lifestyle factors were not associated with changes in anthropometric or body composition parameters. In summary, the results indicate non-linear age-dependent changes in anthropometric data and body composition, which are largely unaffected by the degree of habitual physical activity and dietary protein intake in well-nourished community-dwelling subjects.
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