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Open AccessArticle

Characteristics of Websites Presenting Parenteral Supplementation Services in Five European Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of the Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders, and of Clinical Dietetics, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Szamarzewskiego 82/84, 60-569 Poznań, Poland
2
Student Scientific Club of Clinical Dietetics, Department of the Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders, and of Clinical Dietetics, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Szamarzewskiego 82/84, 60-569 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123614
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 23 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements and Human Health)
We aimed to characterize the parenteral supplementation services in Czechia, Ireland, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom based on their websites. We generated a list of websites by searching Google using the term “vitamin infusion” and selected cities with 250,000 citizens from each analyzed country. All search inputs were performed using the native language. Data on the features of services, indications, contraindications, offered parenteral supplements, and social media activity were obtained. We analyzed 317 websites representing 371 active facilities. Only 6 (1.9%) facilities cited the scientific sources on parenteral supplementation, but these reference were highly biased; 17.4% did not provide information regarding their personnel, while 11.9% indicated the different contraindications. The most common indications were fatigue (62.5%), immunity enhancement (58.0%), anti-aging, and physical activity (51.5%). Approximately, 11.6% of facilities claimed that some parenteral supplements can help manage certain malignancies, while 2.2% claimed that they can help manage fertility problems. The most offered intravenous supplements were vitamins C (57.4%), B12 (47.7%), and B6 (42.3%). The parenteral supplementation market offers numerous ingredients as treatment for general health problems and serious health conditions. Many analyzed websites lacked essential information, which creates concerns for regarding the quality and reliability of the services. View Full-Text
Keywords: alternative medicine; dietary supplements; public health; Internet; vitamin alternative medicine; dietary supplements; public health; Internet; vitamin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kamiński, M.; Kręgielska-Narożna, M.; Soczewka, M.; Wesołek, A.; Rosiejka, P.; Szuman, S.; Bogdański, P. Characteristics of Websites Presenting Parenteral Supplementation Services in Five European Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3614. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123614

AMA Style

Kamiński M, Kręgielska-Narożna M, Soczewka M, Wesołek A, Rosiejka P, Szuman S, Bogdański P. Characteristics of Websites Presenting Parenteral Supplementation Services in Five European Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3614. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123614

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kamiński, Mikołaj; Kręgielska-Narożna, Matylda; Soczewka, Monika; Wesołek, Agnieszka; Rosiejka, Paulina; Szuman, Sara; Bogdański, Paweł. 2020. "Characteristics of Websites Presenting Parenteral Supplementation Services in Five European Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3614. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123614

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