Next Article in Journal
Improving Glucose Homeostasis after Parathyroidectomy for Normocalcemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Co-Existing Prediabetes
Next Article in Special Issue
Longitudinal Changes in Food Addiction Symptoms and Body Weight among Adults in a Behavioral Weight-Loss Program
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Beetroot Powder with or without L-Arginine on Postprandial Vascular Endothelial Function: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial with Abdominally Obese Men
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ultraprocessed Food: Addictive, Toxic, and Ready for Regulation
 
 
Review

Food Addiction and Psychosocial Adversity: Biological Embedding, Contextual Factors, and Public Health Implications

1
Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
2
Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
3
Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
4
School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113521
Received: 18 September 2020 / Revised: 12 November 2020 / Accepted: 13 November 2020 / Published: 16 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Clinical Utility of Food Addiction and Eating Addiction)
The role of stress, trauma, and adversity particularly early in life has been identified as a contributing factor in both drug and food addictions. While links between traumatic stress and substance use disorders are well documented, the pathways to food addiction and obesity are less established. This review focuses on psychosocial and neurobiological factors that may increase risk for addiction-like behaviors and ultimately increase BMI over the lifespan. Early childhood and adolescent adversity can induce long-lasting alterations in the glucocorticoid and dopamine systems that lead to increased addiction vulnerability later in life. Allostatic load, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and emerging data on epigenetics in the context of biological embedding are highlighted. A conceptual model for food addiction is proposed, which integrates data on the biological embedding of adversity as well as upstream psychological, social, and environmental factors. Dietary restraint as a feature of disordered eating is discussed as an important contextual factor related to food addiction. Discussion of various public health and policy considerations are based on the concept that improved knowledge of biopsychosocial mechanisms contributing to food addiction may decrease stigma associated with obesity and disordered eating behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: food addiction; eating disorder; obesity; stress; trauma; early life adversity; adverse childhood experience; dopamine; epigenetics; biopsychosocial food addiction; eating disorder; obesity; stress; trauma; early life adversity; adverse childhood experience; dopamine; epigenetics; biopsychosocial
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wiss, D.A.; Avena, N.; Gold, M. Food Addiction and Psychosocial Adversity: Biological Embedding, Contextual Factors, and Public Health Implications. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3521. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113521

AMA Style

Wiss DA, Avena N, Gold M. Food Addiction and Psychosocial Adversity: Biological Embedding, Contextual Factors, and Public Health Implications. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3521. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113521

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wiss, David A., Nicole Avena, and Mark Gold. 2020. "Food Addiction and Psychosocial Adversity: Biological Embedding, Contextual Factors, and Public Health Implications" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3521. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113521

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop