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Open AccessReview

Fluid Intake Recommendation Considering the Physiological Adaptations of Adults Over 65 Years: A Critical Review

1
Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, University of Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
2
Health Care Research Group (GRECS), Biomedical Research Institute of Lleida, 25196 Lleida, Spain
3
Nursing Home and Day Center for the Elderly Balàfia II, Health services management (GSS), 25005 Lleida, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113383
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 31 October 2020 / Published: 4 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
The aim of this critical review was to clarify recommended fluid intake for older people. A literature search of published articles and guidelines on fluid intake recommendations until April 2020 was carried out using PUBMED, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. In this review, we focused on people over 65 years old at different care levels. The results show that the mean fluid intake ranges between 311 and 2390 mL/day. However, it is difficult to know whether this corresponds to the real pattern of fluid intake, due to the variability of data collection methods. With respect to the recommendations, most international organizations do not take into consideration the physiology of ageing or the health problems associated with an older population. In conclusions, we recommend to follow the guideline of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). ESPEN is the only guideline which takes into account age. It is also based on EFSA recommendations. This authority takes into consideration all fluids consumed (ranging from food to fluids). If it is known that around 20% of all fluids consumed come from food, the result would effectively be that the EFSA recommends the same as the ESPEN guidelines: 1.6 L/day for females and 2.0 L/day for males. The findings could help raise the awareness of professionals in the sector with respect to the required fluid intake of the elderly and, in this way, contribute to avoiding the consequences of dehydration. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid intake; recommendation; physiological adaptations; older people fluid intake; recommendation; physiological adaptations; older people
MDPI and ACS Style

Masot, O.; Miranda, J.; Santamaría, A.L.; Paraiso Pueyo, E.; Pascual, A.; Botigué, T. Fluid Intake Recommendation Considering the Physiological Adaptations of Adults Over 65 Years: A Critical Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3383. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113383

AMA Style

Masot O, Miranda J, Santamaría AL, Paraiso Pueyo E, Pascual A, Botigué T. Fluid Intake Recommendation Considering the Physiological Adaptations of Adults Over 65 Years: A Critical Review. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3383. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113383

Chicago/Turabian Style

Masot, Olga; Miranda, Jèssica; Santamaría, Ana L.; Paraiso Pueyo, Elena; Pascual, Alexandra; Botigué, Teresa. 2020. "Fluid Intake Recommendation Considering the Physiological Adaptations of Adults Over 65 Years: A Critical Review" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3383. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113383

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