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Review

Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity

1
Natural Health Partners, LLC, 125 SW 3rd Place, Cape Coral, FL 33991, USA
2
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA
3
Department of Pediatrics, Shawn Jenkins Children’s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, 10 McClennan Banks Drive, MSC 915, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113361
Received: 4 October 2020 / Revised: 26 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 31 October 2020
Vitamin D deficiency co-exists in patients with COVID-19. At this time, dark skin color, increased age, the presence of pre-existing illnesses and vitamin D deficiency are features of severe COVID disease. Of these, only vitamin D deficiency is modifiable. Through its interactions with a multitude of cells, vitamin D may have several ways to reduce the risk of acute respiratory tract infections and COVID-19: reducing the survival and replication of viruses, reducing risk of inflammatory cytokine production, increasing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 concentrations, and maintaining endothelial integrity. Fourteen observational studies offer evidence that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. The evidence to date generally satisfies Hill’s criteria for causality in a biological system, namely, strength of association, consistency, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), and coherence, although experimental verification is lacking. Thus, the evidence seems strong enough that people and physicians can use or recommend vitamin D supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 in light of their safety and wide therapeutic window. In view of public health policy, however, results of large-scale vitamin D randomized controlled trials are required and are currently in progress. View Full-Text
Keywords: cathelicidin; COVID-19; endothelial dysfunction; IL-6; immune system; inflammation; MMP-9; SARS-CoV-2; vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D cathelicidin; COVID-19; endothelial dysfunction; IL-6; immune system; inflammation; MMP-9; SARS-CoV-2; vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mercola, J.; Grant, W.B.; Wagner, C.L. Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3361. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113361

AMA Style

Mercola J, Grant WB, Wagner CL. Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3361. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113361

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mercola, Joseph, William B. Grant, and Carol L. Wagner 2020. "Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3361. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113361

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