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Article

The Extract of Arctium lappa L. Fruit (Arctii Fructus) Improves Cancer-Induced Cachexia by Inhibiting Weight Loss of Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue

1
Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang-Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
2
Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30901, USA
3
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103195
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 19 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Background: Cachexia induced by cancer is a systemic wasting syndrome and it accompanies continuous body weight loss with the exhaustion of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cancer cachexia is not only a problem in itself, but it also reduces the effectiveness of treatments and deteriorates quality of life. However, effective treatments have not been found yet. Although Arctii Fructus (AF) has been studied about several pharmacological effects, there were no reports on its use in cancer cachexia. Methods: To induce cancer cachexia in mice, we inoculated CT-26 cells to BALB/c mice through subcutaneous injection and intraperitoneal injection. To mimic cancer cachexia in vitro, we used conditioned media (CM), which was CT-26 colon cancer cells cultured medium. Results: In in vivo experiments, AF suppressed expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and atrophy of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. As a result, the administration of AF decreased mortality by preventing weight loss. In adipose tissue, AF decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) by restoring AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. In in vitro model, CM increased muscle degradation factors and decreased adipocytes differentiation factors. However, these tendencies were ameliorated by AF treatment in C2C12 myoblasts and 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our study demonstrated that AF could be a therapeutic supplement for patients suffering from cancer cachexia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arctii Fructus; cancer cachexia; browning; 3T3-L1 cells; C2C12 myoblast Arctii Fructus; cancer cachexia; browning; 3T3-L1 cells; C2C12 myoblast
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, Y.-H.; Mun, J.-G.; Jeon, H.D.; Yoon, D.H.; Choi, B.-M.; Kee, J.-Y.; Hong, S.-H. The Extract of Arctium lappa L. Fruit (Arctii Fructus) Improves Cancer-Induced Cachexia by Inhibiting Weight Loss of Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3195. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103195

AMA Style

Han Y-H, Mun J-G, Jeon HD, Yoon DH, Choi B-M, Kee J-Y, Hong S-H. The Extract of Arctium lappa L. Fruit (Arctii Fructus) Improves Cancer-Induced Cachexia by Inhibiting Weight Loss of Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue. Nutrients. 2020; 12(10):3195. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Yo-Han, Jeong-Geon Mun, Hee Dong Jeon, Dae Hwan Yoon, Byung-Min Choi, Ji-Ye Kee, and Seung-Heon Hong. 2020. "The Extract of Arctium lappa L. Fruit (Arctii Fructus) Improves Cancer-Induced Cachexia by Inhibiting Weight Loss of Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue" Nutrients 12, no. 10: 3195. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103195

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