|Shared Risk Factors for Obesity and Eating Disorders Programs|
|Simpson et al. 2019  ||INSPIRE (USA)||One-group pre-post-design||27 female adolescents|
(M = 18.6 ± SD 1.01 years old)
|Dissonance-based intervention + healthy weight + dialectical behavioral therapy.|
|Leme et al., 2019  ||Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls—Brazil (Brazil)||Randomized controlled trial with post- and 6-month||253 adolescent girls|
(M = 16.1 ± SE 0.1 years old); 142 in intervention group
|Social Cognitive Theory.|
|Achieve sustainable diet and physical activity behaviors, and decrease risk factors for eating disorders.|
|Castillo et al. 2019  ||No intervention name (Mexico)||Three-arm quasi experimental study with post and 3-month follow-up ||361 adolescent girls|
(M = 19.78 ± 2.06 years old);
133 in experimental group; 105 in control skills group and 123 non-intervention group
|Cognitive Dissonance and Constructivist Approach.|
|Raise awareness to beauty standards and perpetuated by the mass media. |
|Increase physical activity and healthy eating.|
|Improve self-esteem, build positive self-concept, and reduce extreme perfectionism, and resolve conflicts.|
|Lenz and Claudino et al. 2018 ||Adaption of the US New Moves (Brazil)||Randomized Controlled trial with post- and 6-month follow-up.||270 adolescent girls|
(M = 13.4 ± 0.64 years old) with 139 in intervention group.
|Social Cognitive Theory.|
|Address issues related to female adolescents to promote health. |
|Shomaker et al. 2017 ||No intervention name (USA)||Randomized Controlled trial with post-intervention, 6 month and 1-year follow-up||29 pre-adolescents|
(M = 11.7 ± 1.6 years old) with 15 in intervention group.
|Family-Based Interpersonal Therapy.|
|Psycho-education on interpersonal model of loss of control-eating and general skill-building applied to improve communication, increase support, and resolve conflict between parent and child. |
|Sánchez-Carracedo et al. 2016 ||The MABIC Project (Spain)||Non-randomized controlled trial with post- and 1-year follow-up.||565 adolescent girls|
(M= 13.8 ± 0.5 years old) with 152 in intervention group.
|Social Cognitive Theory, Media Literacy Education Approach, and Cognitive Dissonance Theory.|
|Increase knowledge through sessions of the practical and relevant aspects of foods. |
|Wilksch et al. 2015  ||No intervention name (Australia)||Four-arm randomized controlled trial with post, intervention, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. ||1316 adolescents|
(M = 13.21 ± 0.68 years old) with 269 in media smart, 347 in life smart and 225 HELPP group.
|Principles of media internalization (Media Smart group). |
|Principles that health is more than weight (Life Smart group). |
|Principles of eating disorder risk factors of internalization of social appearance ideals and comparisons.|
|Evidence principles of being interactive, avoiding psychoeducation on weight-related concerns and with multiple sessions.|
|Stice et al. 2013  ||Healthy Weight 2 (USA)||Randomized controlled trial post-, 6 month, 1-year and 2-year follow-up.||398 young adults|
(M = 18.4, 17–20 years old) with 192 in intervention group.
|Healthy weight approach to reduce eating disorders and obesity.|
|Nutrition science principles for health behavior changes.|
|Franko et al. 2013 ||BodyMojo (USA)||Randomized controlled trial with 4–6 weeks and 3-month follow-up.||65 boys|
(M = 15.4 ± 1.4 years old) and 113 girls
(M = 15.2 ± 0.3 years old), randomized in classes.
|Socio-Cognitive Theory, Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model.|
|Internet-based program for health behavior change through technology and social engagement, offering a personalized experience, goal setting, and interactive games and videos.|
|Gonzalez et al. 2011  ||No intervention name (Spain)||Three arms quasi-experimental design with post-intervention, 6 and 30-month follow-up.||443 adolescents|
(M = 13.5 ± 0.4 years old) with 143 media literacy and 99 media literacy and nutrition.
|Social Cognitive Theory.|
|Focus on media literacy to increase nutrition awareness.|
|Interactive format, sessions, and new activism and media literacy components.|
|Critical thinking and promotion of health and well-being to develop resilience for sociocultural messages.|
|Neumark-Sztainer et al. 2010 ||New Moves (USA) ||Randomized controlled trial with post and 9-month follow-up.||356 adolescent girls|
(M = 15.8 ± 1.2 years old) with 182 in intervention group.
|Social Cognitive Theory and Transtheoretical Model. |
|Socio-environmental, personal, and behavioral factors for changes in diet, physical activity, and weight-control behaviors.|
|Stock et al. 2007  ||Healthy Bodies (Canada)||Prospective pilot study with post-intervention. ||199 adolescents (4th to 7th grade) with 128 in intervention group. ||Prescribed learning outcomes from the British Columbia Minister of Health.|
|3 main components of healthy living: be physical activity, eat healthy, and positive body image.|
|21 lessons over the study school year. |
|Austin et al. 2007  ||The 5-2-1 go! (USA)||Randomized controlled trial with post intervention.||1451 adolescents (6th and 7th grade) with 614 in intervention group.||Learning outcomes from previous trial (Planet Girls).|
|Multiple modules in schools to address nutrition and physical activity in various domains: nutrition services, physical education, and policies and environment.|
|Austin et al. 2005  ||Planet Health (USA)||Randomized controlled trial with post-and 21-month follow-up. ||480 adolescent girls|
(M = 11.5 ± 0.7 years old) with 254 in intervention group
|Social Cognitive Theory.|
|Interdisciplinary curriculum with materials integrated in major subject areas and physical education classes via grade- and subject appropriate skills and competencies.|
|Sgambato et al. 2019 ||PAAPPAS—“Parents, Students, Community Health Agents and teachers for Healthy Eating” (Brazil)||Randomized controlled trial with post-interventions ||2447 adolescents|
(M = 11.5 ± 1.4 years old) with 1290 in intervention group.
|Family Health System.|
|Reduce weight gain at school and home environments. |
|Aperman-Itzhak et al. 2018 ||No intervention name (Israel)||Controlled, non-randomized and non-blinded trial with post-intervention||373 adolescents (10–12 years old) with 187 in intervention group.||Program developed by a registered dietitian and cardiologist. |
|Promote healthy eating and physical activity, integrating the head of the local council stakeholders and school teachers|
|Yang et al. 2017  ||No intervention name (South Korea)||Quasi-experimental trial with 1-year follow-up||768 adolescents|
(M = 11.0 ± 1.5 years old) with 418 in intervention group.
|Based on pre-intervention results + personalized suggestions for improving physical strength and dietary intake.|
|School-based interventions with continuation in the community. |
|Rerksuppaphol and Rerksuppaphol 2017 ||No intervention name (Thailand)||Randomized controlled trial with post-intervention.||217 adolescents|
(M = 10.7 ± 3.1 years old) with 111 in intervention group.
|Internet-based obesity program.|
|Information on health nutrition, food habits, and physical activity included in text and graphics.|
|Participants collect their weight and height and interpreted their weight status. |
|Malakellis et al. 2017  ||It’s Your Move—ACT IYM (Australia)||Quasi-experimental trial with 2-year follow-up.||880 adolescents (12–16 years old) with 628 in intervention group.||ANGELO framework—identify and prioritize key determinants, considering gaps in knowledge community capacity, culturally specific needs, and current health promotion.|
|Changes in school and community-based environment. |
|Ardic and Erdogan 2017  ||COPE Healthy lifestyles teen program (Turkey)||Quasi-experimental trial with post and 12-month follow-up.||100 adolescents|
(M = 12.8 ± 0.8 years old) with 50 in intervention group.
|Adaptation of US study (COPE).|
|Cognitive behavioral skill building.|
|Educational information for healthy lifestyle. |
|Lubans et al. 2016  ||ATLAS Boys (Australia)||Randomized controlled trial with post, 8- and 18-month follow-up.||361 adolescent boys|
(M = 12.7 ± 0.5 years old) with 181 in intervention group.
|Self-Determination and Social Cognitive Theory. |
|Increase autonomy, competence, and relatedness to improve autonomous motivation for leisure time physical activity and school sports.|
|Fulkerson et al. 2015  ||Home Plus (USA)||Randomized controlled trial with 12- and 21-month follow-up.||149 families|
(children M = 10.3 ± 1.4 and; parents M = 41.6 ± 7.6 years old) with 74 families in intervention group.
|Social Cognitive Theory and Social Ecological Model. |
|Family changes on planning, frequency, and healthiness of family meals and snacks (limiting meals related to screen-time).|
|Lazorick et al. 2015  ||MATCH (USA)||Randomized controlled trial with post-intervention follow-up.||362 adolescents|
(M = 13.1 ± 0.5 years old) with 189 in intervention group.
|Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory. |
|Education and behavioral curriculum (school).|
|Lessons delivered in sequence of a planned manner, repeated key concepts, and applied enhance skills for healthy choices.|
|González-Jiménez et al. 2014 ||No intervention name (Spain)||One group, pre post-test design||91 adolescents (15–17 years old) ||Knowledge education program to reduce weight gain.|
|Three workshops on healthy eating.|
|Activities during physical education classes |
|Grydeland et al. 2014 ||HEIA Study (Norway)||Randomized controlled trial with 2-month follow-up ||1485 adolescents|
(M = 11.2 ± 0.3 years old) with 465 in intervention group.
|Social Ecological Framework.|
|Multiple components for health promotion to increase awareness and physical activity, and reduce screen-time.|
|Nollen et al. 2014 ||No intervention name (USA)||Randomized controlled trial with post, 8-week and 12-week follow-up.||51 adolescent girls|
(M = 11.3 ± 1.6 years old) with 26 in intervention group.
|Mobile technology with four-week 3 modules: to improve fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverages intake and screen-time.|
|Dewar et al. 2013 ||NEAT Girls (Australia)||Randomized controlled trial with 12- and 24-month follow-up.||357 adolescent girls|
(M = 13.2 ± 0.5 years old) with 178 in intervention group.
|Social Cognitive Theory.|
|Range of strategies to promote lifestyle and lifetime physical activity, improve diet intake, and reduce time on screens.|
|Bonsergent et al. 2013 ||PRALIMAP trial (France)||Randomized Controlled trial with mid- and post-intervention follow-up. ||3538 adolescents|
(M = 15.6 ± 0.7 years old) with 1949 in education strategy and 1589 in non-education strategy.
Education was divided in environmental with 1029 and non-environmental with 920 individuals.
Non-education divided in environmental with 699 and non-environmental with 890 individuals.
|Personal skills were used for educational strategy, detection of weight-related problems, and proposing a care model for a screening strategy and favorable and supportive environment for environmental strategy. |
|* Screening = non-education|
|Lubans et al. 2011  ||Physical Activity Leaders—PAL (Australia)||Randomized controlled trial with 3- and 6-month follow-up.||100 adolescents|
(M = 14.3 ± 0.6 years old) with 50 in intervention group.
|Social Cognitive Theory. |
|Promotion of lifestyle and lifetime activities. |
|Jansen et al. 2011  ||Lekker Fit (Enjoy being fit) (The Netherlands)||Randomized controlled trial with post-intervention. ||1236 adolescents|
(M = 10.8 ± 1.0 years old) with 583 in intervention group.
|Theory of Planned Behavior.|
|ANGELO framework (identify and prioritize environmental determinants).|
|Intervention targeted individual behaviors, school policies, and curriculum.|
|Fotu et al. 2011 ||Ma’alahi Youth Project (Tonga)||Quasi-experimental design with 3-year follow-up||1712 adolescents|
(M = 14.8 ± 1.9 years old) with 897 in intervention group.
|Develop on communities the capacity to build on their own promotion for a healthy lifestyle. |
|Social marketing approaches, community capacity building, and grass-roots activities.|
|Chen et al. 2011 ||WEB ABC study (USA)||Randomized controlled trial with 2-, 6- and 8-month follow-up||63 adolescents|
(M = 12.5 ± 3.2 years old) with 27 in intervention group
|Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory.|
|Web-based program to enhance diet and physical activity self-efficacy, ease comprehension, and use problem solving skills. |
|Simon et al. 2008 ||No intervention name (France)||Randomized controlled trial with post and 4-year follow-up.||954 adolescents|
(M = 11.6 ± 0.6 years old) with 475 in intervention group
|Provide environment institutional conditions to promote health use knowledge and skills acquired.|
|Changes attitudes towards health and social support from parents and educators.|
|Shaw-Peri et al. 2007 ||NEEMA (USA)||One-group with pre-post design.||269 adolescents|
(M = 10.5 ± 0.7 years old)
|Based on the learning outcomes of a previous study reporting increased risk for diabetes type 2.|
|Changes in social structures to promote physical activity, fiber intake, and reduce saturated fat, sugar, and sedentary time.|