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Article

Habitual Nightly Fasting Duration, Eating Timing, and Eating Frequency are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Women

1
Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
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Sleep Center of Excellence, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
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College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85004, USA
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Department of Medicine, UC San Diego San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
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Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, UC San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
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Moores Cancer Center, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
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Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
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Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103043
Received: 29 August 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 1 October 2020 / Published: 4 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Patterns and Sleep on Body Weight Management)
Nightly fasting duration (NFD) and eating timing and frequency may influence cardiometabolic health via their impact on circadian rhythms, which are entrained by food intake, but observational studies are limited. This 1-year prospective study of 116 US women (33 ± 12y, 45% Hispanic) investigated associations of habitual NFD and eating timing and frequency with cardiovascular health (CVH; American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7 score) and cardiometabolic risk factors. NFD, eating timing and frequency, and nighttime eating levels were evaluated from 1-week electronic food records completed at baseline and 1 y. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, longer NFD was associated with poorer CVH (β = −0.22, p = 0.016 and β = −0.22, p = 0.050) and higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (β = 1.08, p < 0.01 and β = 1.74, p < 0.01) in cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Later timing of the first eating occasion at baseline was associated with poorer CVH (β = −0.20, p = 0.013) and higher DBP (β = 1.18, p < 0.01) and fasting glucose (β = 1.43, p = 0.045) at 1 y. After adjustment for baseline outcomes, longer NFD and later eating times were also associated with higher waist circumference (β = 0.35, p = 0.021 and β = 0.27, p < 0.01, respectively). Eating frequency was inversely related to DBP in cross-sectional (β = −1.94, p = 0.033) and prospective analyses (β = −3.37, p < 0.01). In cross-sectional analyses of baseline data and prospective analyses, a higher percentage of daily calories consumed at the largest evening meal was associated with higher DBP (β = 1.69, p = 0.046 and β = 2.32, p = 0.029, respectively). Findings suggest that frequent and earlier eating may lower cardiometabolic risk, while longer NFD may have adverse effects. Results warrant confirmation in larger multi-ethnic cohort studies with longer follow-up periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: nightly fasting duration; circadian; eating timing; eating frequency; cardiometabolic risk; diabetes; cancer; cardiovascular health; women nightly fasting duration; circadian; eating timing; eating frequency; cardiometabolic risk; diabetes; cancer; cardiovascular health; women
MDPI and ACS Style

Makarem, N.; Sears, D.D.; St-Onge, M.-P.; Zuraikat, F.M.; Gallo, L.C.; Talavera, G.A.; Castaneda, S.F.; Lai, Y.; Mi, J.; Aggarwal, B. Habitual Nightly Fasting Duration, Eating Timing, and Eating Frequency are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Women. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3043. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103043

AMA Style

Makarem N, Sears DD, St-Onge M-P, Zuraikat FM, Gallo LC, Talavera GA, Castaneda SF, Lai Y, Mi J, Aggarwal B. Habitual Nightly Fasting Duration, Eating Timing, and Eating Frequency are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Women. Nutrients. 2020; 12(10):3043. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Makarem, Nour, Dorothy D. Sears, Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Faris M. Zuraikat, Linda C. Gallo, Gregory A. Talavera, Sheila F. Castaneda, Yue Lai, Junhui Mi, and Brooke Aggarwal. 2020. "Habitual Nightly Fasting Duration, Eating Timing, and Eating Frequency are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Women" Nutrients 12, no. 10: 3043. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103043

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