# Repeatability of Taste Recognition Threshold Measurements with QUEST and Quick Yes–No

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Participants

#### 2.2. Procedure

#### 2.2.1. Experimental Sessions

#### 2.2.2. Eating Behavior, Taste Liking, and Food Consumption

#### 2.2.3. Taste Recognition Thresholds

#### Procedure

#### Taste Stimuli

^{−3}mM to 3.131 mM (21 ${log}_{10}$ steps; step width: 0.230); and sucrose, 0.073 mM to 584.283 mM (14 ${log}_{10}$ steps; step width: 0.300).

#### Psychometric Functions

#### Stimulus Selection

#### Taste Recognition Termination

#### Parameter Estimates

#### 2.3. Analysis

#### 2.3.1. Ratings

#### 2.3.2. Taste Recognition Data Cleaning

#### 2.3.3. Test–Retest Reliability

#### Threshold

#### False-Alarm Rate (FAR)

#### Slope

#### Relationship between FAR and Slope

#### 2.3.4. Software

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Eating Behavior, Taste Liking, and Food Consumption

#### 3.2. Taste Recognition

#### 3.2.1. Threshold Repeatability

#### 3.2.2. False-Alarm Rates and Psychometric Function Slopes

## 4. Discussion

#### 4.1. Taste Recognition Thresholds

#### 4.2. Threshold Repeatability

#### 4.3. False-Alarm Rates and ${d}^{\prime}$ Slopes

#### 4.4. Measurement Duration

#### 4.5. Taste Sensitivity, Taste Liking, and Food Preference

## 5. Conclusions

## 6. Data and Software Availability

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Distributions of the means of Test and Retest threshold estimates, split by tastant and procedure. Squares indicate the mean, and whiskers correspond to 1.5× inter-quartile range. Only participants for whom threshold data for both sessions and procedures were available are included; the number of participants is given below the respective abscissa labels for each tastant.

**Figure 2.**Psychometric functions based on the averaged parameter estimates. Mean thresholds are depicted as crosses. It becomes apparent how the definition of “threshold” differs between QUEST and qYN: while threshold in QUEST is solely based on the proportion of “yes” responses, qYN uses a threshold based on the sensitivity function ${d}^{\prime}$, which also takes false alarms into account. Only data from participants for whom threshold data of both sessions and procedures were available are included.

**Figure 3.**Correlation between Test and Retest threshold estimates for QUEST and qYN. Each point represents one participant; the dashed line is the identity line.

**Figure 4.**Bland–Altman plots showing differences between Test and Retest thresholds plotted over session means for QUEST and qYN. The mean difference is represented by the dashed line in the center, and upper and lower bounds of the limits of agreement (corresponding to the 95% CI of the differences) are shown as the upper and lower dashed line, respectively. The shaded areas correspond to the 95% CIs of these estimates.

**Figure 5.**Bland–Altman plots showing differences between qYN Test and Retest FARs plotted over session means for all available Test–Retest pairs from all participants. The mean difference is represented by the dashed line in the center, and upper and lower bounds of the limits of agreement (corresponding to the 95% CI of the differences) are shown as the upper and lower dashed line, respectively. The shaded areas correspond to the 95% CIs of these estimates. Since the variability of session differences increased with session means, all calculations were performed on the ${log}_{10}$-transformed data, and the results were back-transformed to their original scale for plotting. Due to the back-transformation, the dashed lines are not parallel to the abscissa, and we provide their respective formulas. Note that the intercepts of all lines were 0, and are therefore omitted.

**Figure 6.**Bland–Altman plots showing differences between qYN Test and Retest ${d}^{\prime}$ slopes plotted over session means. The mean difference is represented by the dashed line in the center, and upper and lower bounds of the limits of agreement (corresponding to the 95% CI of the differences) are shown as the upper and lower dashed line, respectively. The shaded areas correspond to the 95% CIs of these estimates.

Measure | Mean | SD | N |
---|---|---|---|

DEBQ emotional eating | 2.22 | 0.64 | 40 |

DEBQ restrained eating | 2.55 | 0.67 | 40 |

DEBQ external eating | 3.02 | 0.65 | 40 |

Liking of salty | 3.41 | 1.05 | 37 |

Liking of sour | 3.05 | 1.09 | 37 |

Liking of sweet | 4.11 | 0.83 | 37 |

Liking of bitter | 1.89 | 0.98 | 37 |

Consumption of salty | 3.64 | 1.33 | 37 |

Consumption of sour | 4.19 | 1.10 | 37 |

Consumption of sweet | 4.70 | 1.03 | 37 |

Consumption of bitter | 4.00 | 1.24 | 37 |

Procedure | Tastant | N | Session | Threshold in ${log}_{10}$ mM | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

mean | min | max | SD | ||||

QUEST | Citric Acid | 37 | Test | −0.141 | −1.564 | 1.350 | 0.621 |

Retest | −0.256 | −1.540 | 1.385 | 0.666 | |||

Sodium Chloride | 38 | Test | 1.140 | −0.417 | 2.495 | 0.631 | |

Retest | 1.069 | −0.432 | 2.100 | 0.544 | |||

Quinine−HCl | 38 | Test | −1.737 | −3.514 | 0.496 | 1.101 | |

Retest | −1.889 | −3.514 | 0.339 | 0.953 | |||

Sucrose | 38 | Test | 1.054 | −0.592 | 2.414 | 0.705 | |

Retest | 1.089 | −0.563 | 2.194 | 0.660 | |||

qYN | Citric Acid | 37 | Test | −0.446 | −1.807 | 0.812 | 0.563 |

Retest | −0.558 | −1.508 | 0.574 | 0.598 | |||

Sodium Chloride | 36 | Test | 0.785 | −0.457 | 2.052 | 0.607 | |

Retest | 0.831 | −0.369 | 2.222 | 0.571 | |||

Quinine−HCl | 35 | Test | −1.974 | −3.409 | 0.239 | 0.952 | |

Retest | −1.980 | −3.369 | 0.091 | 0.962 | |||

Sucrose | 36 | Test | 0.871 | −0.613 | 2.243 | 0.677 | |

Retest | 0.765 | −0.742 | 1.881 | 0.669 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Höchenberger, R.; Ohla, K. Repeatability of Taste Recognition Threshold Measurements with *QUEST* and *Quick Yes–No*. *Nutrients* **2020**, *12*, 24.
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010024

**AMA Style**

Höchenberger R, Ohla K. Repeatability of Taste Recognition Threshold Measurements with *QUEST* and *Quick Yes–No*. *Nutrients*. 2020; 12(1):24.
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010024

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Höchenberger, Richard, and Kathrin Ohla. 2020. "Repeatability of Taste Recognition Threshold Measurements with *QUEST* and *Quick Yes–No*" *Nutrients* 12, no. 1: 24.
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010024