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Anti-Obesity Effect of Ginkgo Vinegar, a Fermented Product of Ginkgo Seed Coat, in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet and 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Cells

1
Division of Aesthetic Dentistry and Clinical Cariology, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Showa University School of Dentistry, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 145-0062, Japan
2
RegeneTiss Inc., Okaya, Nagano 394-0046, Japan
3
Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
4
Pharmacological Research Center, Showa University, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010230
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
Ginkgo seed coat is rarely used and is typically discarded, due to its offensive odor and its toxicity. Ginkgo vinegar is a fermented product of ginkgo seed coat, and fermentation removes the bad smell and most of the toxicity. Thus, ginkgo vinegar contains very low concentrations of toxic components. The present study examined the anti-obesity effect of ginkgo vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet and its inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Ginkgo vinegar suppressed high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and reduced the size of fat cells in mice. Ginkgo vinegar suppressed the expression of C/EBPδ and PPARγ, key proteins in adipogenesis, and inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells that were induced to become adipocytes. These results suggested that ginkgo vinegar inhibited adipocyte differentiation. On the other hand, a corresponding concentration of acetic acid had significantly less effect on lipid accumulation and virtually no effect on adipogenic gene expression. These results suggested that, similar to Ginkgo biloba extract, ginkgo vinegar might prevent and improve adiposity. Therefore, ginkgo seed coat could be a useful material for medicinal ingredients. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginkgo vinegar; Ginkgo biloba extract; anti-obesity effect; 3T3-L1 cells; adipocytes ginkgo vinegar; Ginkgo biloba extract; anti-obesity effect; 3T3-L1 cells; adipocytes
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Hosoda, S.; Kawazoe, Y.; Shiba, T.; Numazawa, S.; Manabe, A. Anti-Obesity Effect of Ginkgo Vinegar, a Fermented Product of Ginkgo Seed Coat, in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet and 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Cells. Nutrients 2020, 12, 230.

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