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Open AccessArticle

Energy Expenditure and Changes in Body Composition During Submarine Deployment—An Observational Study “DasBoost 2-2017”

1
Training Medicine and Training Physiology, Army Command/Directory of Personnel, Royal Netherlands Army, Ministry of Defence, Herculeslaan 1, 3584 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Department of Human Physiology and Sports Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, U-Residence, Verd. 1, 1050 Etterbeek, Brussels, Belgium
3
Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010226 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
The present study was designed to objectively assess the effects of 3-months submarine deployment on behavioural and metabolic determinants of metabolic health. In 13 healthy, non-obese volunteers, we using stable isotope dilution, and plasma and urinary biochemistry to characterize metabolic health before and after a 3-month submarine deployment. Volunteers worked in 6-h shifts. After deployment, we observed reduced fat-free mass (mean ± SD, −4.1 ± 3.3 kg, p = 0.003) and increased adiposity (21.9 ± 3.2% fat mass to 24.4 ± 4.7%, p = 0.01). Changes in fat-free mass were positively associated with physical activity (+0.8 kg per 0.1 increase in PAL, p = 0.03). The average physical activity level was 1.64 ± 0.26 and total energy expenditure during deployment was 2937 ± 498 kcal/d, while energy intake was 3158 ± 786 kcal/d. Fasting glucose (p = 0.03), and triglycerides (p = 0.01) declined, whereas fasting free fatty acids increased (p = 0.04). Plasma vitamin D and B12 concentrations decreased (−14%, p = 0.04, and −44%, p = 0.001, respectively), and plasma calcium, and magnesium increased (+51%, p = 0.01, and +5%, p = 0.02). Haemoglobin was unchanged, but haematocrit decreased (−2.2 ± 2.1%, p = 0.005). In conclusion, submarine deployment impairs fat-free mass maintenance and promotes adiposity. High physical activity may prevent the decline in fat-free mass. Our study confirms the need to counteract Vitamin D and B12 deficiencies, and suggests impairments in erythrocyte metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: submarine; energy expenditure; doubly labelled water; body composition; adiposity; physical activity submarine; energy expenditure; doubly labelled water; body composition; adiposity; physical activity
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Rietjens, G.; Most, J.; Joris, P.J.; Helmhout, P.; Plasqui, G. Energy Expenditure and Changes in Body Composition During Submarine Deployment—An Observational Study “DasBoost 2-2017”. Nutrients 2020, 12, 226.

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