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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of a Low GI Diet on Truncal Fat Mass and Glycated Hemoglobin in South Indians with Type 2 Diabetes—A Single Centre Randomized Prospective Study

1
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala 682041, India
2
Department of Endocrinology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala 682041, India
3
Department of General Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala 682041, India
4
Department of Biostatistics, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala 682041, India
5
School of Health Sciences, University of Greenwich, London SE9 2UG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010179
Received: 6 December 2019 / Revised: 4 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Background: There has been no previous study that has investigated the effect of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet with local recipes of South Indian cuisine on the body fat composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Truncal obesity has been associated with the risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a low GI diet on glycemic control and body composition in people with type 2 diabetes in South India. Method: This was a prospective and randomized controlled study that was conducted over a period of 24 weeks. A total of 40 participants were recruited from the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Outpatient in Kerala, South India. All the patients had type 2 diabetes and were randomly assigned and given advice and instructions to follow either a low GI diet plan (n = 18) or their usual diet, which served as control (n = 18). The advice was reinforced throughout the study period. Dietary compliance was evaluated based on a 24 h dietary recall at weeks 3, 11, 12, 18, 23, and 24. The age of the subjects ranged from 35 to 65 years. Anthropometric, body composition, and cardio-metabolic parameters were measured according to standard procedures. T-tests were conducted to compare differences between intervention and control groups and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate associations between the variables. Results: There were significant reductions (p < 0.05) in the low GI diet compared to the control group with respect to weight, body mass index (BMI), and triceps skinfold thickness. Similarly, significant reductions were observed in the low GI diet group with respect to region, total fat, android, and gynoid fat mass and the differences between the groups were significant at p < 0.05. There was also a positive correlation between BMI and android fat mass (r = 0.745), total fat mass (r = 0.661), total truncal mass (r = 0.821), and truncal fat (r = 0.707). There was a significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin in the low GI diet group compared to the control group at p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of truncal obesity and glycated hemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes on a local diet of South Indian cuisine with low GI compared with the control. View Full-Text
Keywords: low GI diet; truncal obesity; glycatedhemoglobin; anthropometric parameters; body composition indicators; body mass index low GI diet; truncal obesity; glycatedhemoglobin; anthropometric parameters; body composition indicators; body mass index
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Pavithran, N.; Kumar, H.; Menon, A.S.; Pillai, G.K.; Sundaram, K.R.; Ojo, O. The Effect of a Low GI Diet on Truncal Fat Mass and Glycated Hemoglobin in South Indians with Type 2 Diabetes—A Single Centre Randomized Prospective Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 179.

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