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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D and ω-3 Supplementations in Mediterranean Diet During the 1st Year of Overt Type 1 Diabetes: A Cohort Study

1
Division of Pediatrics, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
2
IRCAD (Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases), 28100 Novara, Italy
3
Diabetes Research Institute Federation, Miami, FL 33163, USA
4
Department Dietetic and Clinical NutritionUniversity Hospital of Novara, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
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Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, UniversitàdegliStudi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
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Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences (DiSFEB), Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Applied Nutrition, UniversitàdegliStudi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
7
Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital of Novara, 28100 Novara, Italy
8
Immunology, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
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Medical Direction University Hospital of Novara, 28100 Novara, Italy
10
Diabetes Research Institute and Cell Transplant Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092158
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
Vitamin D and omega 3 fatty acid (ω-3) co-supplementation potentially improves type 1 diabetes (T1D) by attenuating autoimmunity and counteracting inflammation. This cohort study, preliminary to a randomized control trial (RCT), is aimed at evaluating, in a series of T1D children assuming Mediterranean diet and an intake of cholecalciferol of 1000U/day from T1D onset, if ω-3 co-supplementation preserves the residual endogen insulin secretion (REIS). Therefore, the cohort of 22 “new onsets” of 2017 received ω-3 (eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 60 mg/kg/day), and were compared retrospectively vs. the 37 “previous onsets” without ω-3 supplementation. Glicosilated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), the daily insulin demand (IU/Kg/day) and IDAA1c, a composite index (calculated as IU/Kg/day × 4 + HbA1c%), as surrogates of REIS, were evaluated at recruitment (T0) and 12 months later (T12). In the ω-3 supplemented group, dietary intakes were evaluated at T0 and T12. As an outcome, a decreased insulin demand (p < 0.01), particularly as pre-meal boluses (p < 0.01), and IDAA1c (p < 0.01), were found in the ω-3 supplemented group, while HbA1c% was not significantly different. Diet analysis in the ω-3 supplemented group, at T12 vs. T0, highlighted that the intake of arachidonic acid (AA) decreased (p < 0.01). At T0, the AA intake was inversely correlated with HbA1c% (p < 0.05; r;. 0.411). In conclusion, the results suggest that vitamin D plus ω-3 co-supplementation as well as AA reduction in the Mediterranean diet display benefits for T1D children at onset and deserve further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholecalciferol; omega3; EPA; DHA; arachidonic acid; AA/EPA ratio; type 1 diabetes; remission period; honeymoon period cholecalciferol; omega3; EPA; DHA; arachidonic acid; AA/EPA ratio; type 1 diabetes; remission period; honeymoon period
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Cadario, F.; Pozzi, E.; Rizzollo, S.; Stracuzzi, M.; Beux, S.; Giorgis, A.; Carrera, D.; Fullin, F.; Riso, S.; Rizzo, A.M.; Montorfano, G.; Bagnati, M.; Dianzani, U.; Caimmi, P.; Bona, G.; Ricordi, C. Vitamin D and ω-3 Supplementations in Mediterranean Diet During the 1st Year of Overt Type 1 Diabetes: A Cohort Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2158.

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