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Relationship between Changes in Microbiota and Liver Steatosis Induced by High-Fat Feeding—A Review of Rodent Models

1
Nutrition and Obesity Group, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and Lucio Lascaray Research Institute, 01006 Vitoria, Spain
2
CIBEROBN Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, 01006 Vitoria, Spain
3
Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of Litoral and National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Santa Fe 3000, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this manuscript.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092156
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 22 August 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health)
Several studies have observed that gut microbiota can play a critical role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. The gut microbiota is influenced by different environmental factors, which include diet. The aim of the present review is to summarize the information provided in the literature concerning the impact of changes in gut microbiota on the effects which dietary fat has on liver steatosis in rodent models. Most studies in which high-fat feeding has induced steatosis have reported reduced microbiota diversity, regardless of the percentage of energy provided by fat. At the phylum level, an increase in Firmicutes and a reduction in Bacteroidetes is commonly found, although widely diverging results have been described at class, order, family, and genus levels, likely due to differences in experimental design. Unfortunately, this fact makes it difficult to reach clear conclusions concerning the specific microbiota patterns associated with this feeding pattern. With regard to the relationship between high-fat feeding-induced changes in liver and microbiota composition, although several mechanisms such as alteration of gut integrity and increased permeability, inflammation, and metabolite production have been proposed, more scientific evidence is needed to address this issue and thus further studies are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary fat; steatosis; gut microbiota; dysbiosis; rodent; liver dietary fat; steatosis; gut microbiota; dysbiosis; rodent; liver
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Gómez-Zorita, S.; Aguirre, L.; Milton-Laskibar, I.; Fernández-Quintela, A.; Trepiana, J.; Kajarabille, N.; Mosqueda-Solís, A.; González, M.; Portillo, M.P. Relationship between Changes in Microbiota and Liver Steatosis Induced by High-Fat Feeding—A Review of Rodent Models. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2156.

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