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Article

A Longitudinal Assessment of Diet Quality and Risks Associated with Malnutrition in Socioeconomic and Racially Diverse Adults

1
Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, 206C McDowell Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA
2
College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware, STAR, Newark, DE 19716, USA
3
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Delaware, 206C McDowell Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA
4
National Institute on Aging, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, NIH, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092046
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 24 August 2019 / Accepted: 26 August 2019 / Published: 2 September 2019
Little is known about the effects of diet quality through adulthood and its association with malnutrition later in life. The first research objective was to evaluate diet quality assessed by Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) of United States African American and White adults (n = 2066), examined at baseline and two follow-up waves in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The sample was split into cohorts by age at study baseline: Younger, <50, and older, ≥50 years. The second objective was to assess the association of MAR and risk for malnutrition in adults who were ≥60 years at wave 4 (n = 746). The Mini Nutritional Assessment was used to determine risk for malnutrition. At each of the three study waves, 17 micronutrients from two 24 h dietary recalls were used to calculate MAR. Over 13 years MAR changed minimally in the younger cohort as they aged from early to middle adulthood. In contrast, a statistically significant decline in MAR was observed for the older cohort between baseline (2004–2009) and wave 4 (2013–2017), with a greater degree of worsening at low energy levels. The risk for malnutrition was significantly associated with consuming a diet low in energy, lower protein as a percent of energy at baseline, as well as being food insecure, a current smoker, and having income <125% poverty. The risk for malnutrition was not associated with a change in protein intake in years prior to age 60, change in MAR scores across waves, MAR at wave 4, age, sex, race, or having hypertension or diabetes. These longitudinal study findings revealed that diet quality was not predictive of risk for malnutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet quality; malnutrition; African American; MNA diet quality; malnutrition; African American; MNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fanelli Kuczmarski, M.; Stave Shupe, E.; Pohlig, R.T.; Rawal, R.; Zonderman, A.B.; Evans, M.K. A Longitudinal Assessment of Diet Quality and Risks Associated with Malnutrition in Socioeconomic and Racially Diverse Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092046

AMA Style

Fanelli Kuczmarski M, Stave Shupe E, Pohlig RT, Rawal R, Zonderman AB, Evans MK. A Longitudinal Assessment of Diet Quality and Risks Associated with Malnutrition in Socioeconomic and Racially Diverse Adults. Nutrients. 2019; 11(9):2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie, Emily Stave Shupe, Ryan T. Pohlig, Rita Rawal, Alan B. Zonderman, and Michele K. Evans 2019. "A Longitudinal Assessment of Diet Quality and Risks Associated with Malnutrition in Socioeconomic and Racially Diverse Adults" Nutrients 11, no. 9: 2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092046

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